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Who Was Napoleon?
Napoleon Bonaparte was a French military general, the initially emperor of France and among the world's best army leaders. Napoleon transformed army company and training, funded the Napoleonic Code, rearranged education and established the long-lived Concordat with the papacy.
Napoleon Bonaparte was born in Ajaccio, on the French island also of Corsica, on August 15, 1769.
Napoleon was the fourth, and second enduring, child of Carlo Buonaparte, a lawyer, and his wife, Letizia Ramolino.
Around the time of Napoleon's birth, Corsica's occupation by the French had attracted substantial local resistance. Carlo Buonaparte had at initially supported the nationalists siding via their leader, Pasquale Paoli.
But after Paoli was required to flee the island also, Carlo switched his allegiance to the French. After doing so he was appointed assessor of the judicial district of Ajaccio in 1771, a plush project that ultimately permitted him to enroll his 2 sons, Joseph and Napoleon, in France's College d'Autun.
Military EducationAt some point, Napoleon ended up at the military college of Brienne, where he stupassed away for five years, prior to moving on to the military academy in Paris. In 1785, while Napoleon was at the academy, his father died of stomach cancer.
This moved Napoleon to take the reins as the head of the family. Graduating early from the armed forces academy, Napoleon, currently second lieutenant of artillery, went back to Corsica in 1786.
Back home, Napoleon gained behind the Corsican resistance to the French occupation, siding via his father's previous ally, Pasquale Paoli.
But the two shortly had actually a falling out, and once a civil war in Corsica started in April 1793, Napoleon, now an foe of Paoli, and his family resituated to France, wbelow they assumed the French version of their name: Bonaparte.
Napoleon’s go back to France from Corsica started through a service through the French military, wbelow he rejoined his regiment at Nice in June 1793.
Napoleon stood about 5 feet and 7 inches tall, making him slightly taller than the average Frenchman of his time.
Much has actually been made of Napoleon's elevation, and legends case that he was unusually brief, offering rise to the term "Napoleon complicated," an inferiority complex periodically linked through people of brief stature.
Some historians attribute the myths about Napoleon's elevation to British propaganda.
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French RevolutionThe turmoil of the French Revolution produced opportunities for ambitious military leaders prefer Napoleon. The young leader quickly confirmed his assistance for the Jacobins, a far-left political motion and the many popular and also famous political club from the French Radvancement.
In 1792, 3 years after the Rdevelopment had actually started, France was declared a republic; the complying with year, King Louis XVI was executed. At some point, these acts resulted in the rise of Maximilien de Robespierre and also what ended up being, basically, the dictatorship of the Committee of Public Safety.
The years of 1793 and 1794 happened known as the Reign of Terror, in which many as 40,000 civilization were eliminated. Eventually the Jacobins fell from power and also Robespierre was executed. In 1795, the Directory (the French Revolutionary government) took control of the nation, a power it would certainly it assume until 1799.
Napoleon’s Rise to Power
After falling out of favor with Robespierre, Napoleon came into the great graces of the Directory in 1795 after he conserved the government from counter-revolutionary pressures.
For his efforts, Napoleon was quickly named commander of the Military of the Interior. In enhancement, he was a trusted advisor to the Directory on military matters.
In 1796, Napoleon took the helm of the Army of Italy, a article he'd been coveting. The army, simply 30,000 strong, disgruntled and also underfed, was shortly turned around by the young army commander.
Under his direction, the reinvigorated army won countless essential victories versus the Austrians, considerably increased the French empire and also squamelted an internal risk by the royalists, that wished to rerevolve France to a monarchy. All of these successes helped make Napoleon the military's brightest star.
Napoleon and JosephineNapoleon married Joséphine de Beauharnais, widow of General Alexandre de Beauharnais (guillotined in the time of the Reign of Terror) and also the mother of 2 youngsters, on March 9, 1796, in a civil ceremony.
Joséphine was unable to give him a boy, so in 1810, Napoleon arranged for the annulment of their marriage so that he can wed Marie-Louise, the 18-year-old daughter of the emperor of Austria.
The couple had a boy, Napoleon II (a.k.a. the King of Rome) on March 20, 1811.
Napoleon in Egypt
On July 1, 1798, Napoleon and also his army travebrought about the Middle East to undermine Great Britain's empire by occupying Egypt and disrupting English profession courses to India.
But his military campaign proved disastrous: On August 1, 1798, Admiral Horatio Nelson's fleet decimated Napoleon’s forces in the Battle of the Nile.
Napoleon's picture - and that of France - were significantly hequipped by the loss, and in a display of newfound confidence versus the commander, Britain, Austria, Russia and Turvital formed a new coalition against France.
In the spring of 1799, French militaries were beat in Italy, forcing France to give up a lot of the peninsula. In October, Napoleon went back to France, wbelow he was invited as a famous military leader.
Coup of 18 Brumaire
Following his 1799 go back to France, Napoleon participated in an occasion known as the Coup of 18 Brumaire, a bloodmuch less coup d'etat that toppled the French Directory.
The Directory was replaced by a three-member consulate after a collection of political and military machinations orchestrated in huge part by Napoleon's brother Lucien Bonaparte.
When Napoleon was named first consul, he became France’s leading political number. At the Battle of Marengo in 1800, Napoleon’s forces defeated the Austrians and drove them from the Italian peninsula.
This armed forces victory cemented Napoleon’s authority as initially consul. Furthermore, via the Treaty of Amiens in 1802, the war-weary British agreed to tranquility with the French (although the tranquility would certainly only last for a year).
Napoleonic WarsThe Napoleonic Wars were a series of European wars lasting from 1803 to Napoleon’s second abdication of power in 1815.
In 1803, in part to raise funds for war, France marketed its North American Louisiana Territory to the United States for $15 million, a transactivity known as the Louisiana Purchase. Napoleon then returned to war through Britain, Russia and also Austria.
In 1805, the British registered an important naval victory against France at the Battle of Trafalgar, which led Napoleon to scrap his plans to attack England also. Instead, he set his sights on Austria and also Russia, and also beat back both militaries in the Battle of Austerlitz.
Other victories quickly followed, enabling Napoleon to substantially expand also the French empire and paving the method for loyalists to his federal government to be installed in Holland also, Italy, Naples, Sweden, Spain and also Westphalia.
On March 21, 1804, Napoleon instituted the Napoleonic Code, otherwise recognized as the French Civil Code, parts of which are still in usage approximately the people now.
The Napoleonic Code forbade privileges based on birth, enabled flexibility of faith, and also proclaimed that government work need to be offered to the most qualified. The regards to the code are the main basis for many various other countries’ civil codes throughout Europe and The United States and Canada.
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The Napoleonic Code complied with Napoleon's brand-new constitution, which developed the initially consul — a place which ainstalled to nopoint less than a dictatorship. Following the French Radvancement, unremainder ongoing in France; in June of 1799, a coup resulted in the left-wing radical group, the Jacobins, taking regulate of the Directory.
Working with among the brand-new directors, Emmanuel Sieyes, Napoleon hatched plans for a 2nd coup that would area the pair in addition to Pierre-Roger Ducos aoptimal a new federal government called the Consulate.