Napoleon Bonaparte to be a French military basic who crowned self the first emperor that France. His Napoleonic Code remains a version for federal governments worldwide.

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Who to be Napoleon?

Napoleon Bonaparte to be a French armed forces general, the very first emperor the France and also one the the world's greatest military leaders. Napoleon revolutionized army organization and also training, sponsored the Napoleonic Code, reorganized education and established the long-lived Concordat through the papacy. 

Early Life

Napoleon Bonaparte to be born in Ajaccio, top top the French island that Corsica, on respectable 15, 1769.

Napoleon to be the fourth, and 2nd surviving, boy of Carlo Buonaparte, a lawyer, and also his wife, Letizia Ramolino.

Around the moment of Napoleon's birth, Corsica's occupation by the French had actually drawn considerable local resistance. Carlo Buonaparte had actually at an initial supported the nationalists siding v their leader, Pasquale Paoli.

But ~ Paoli was required to flee the island, Carlo switched his allegiance to the French. ~ doing so he was appointed assessor that the judicial district of Ajaccio in 1771, a plush job that eventually allowed him to enroll his two sons, Joseph and also Napoleon, in France's university d'Autun.

Military Education

Eventually, Napoleon finished up in ~ the army college of Brienne, whereby he studied for five years, before moving on come the armed forces academy in Paris. In 1785, when Napoleon to be at the academy, his father passed away of stomach cancer.

This propelled Napoleon to take the reins as the head of the family. Graduating at an early stage from the armed forces academy, Napoleon, now second lieutenant that artillery, returned to Corsica in 1786.

Back home, Napoleon obtained behind the Corsican resistance come the French occupation, siding v his father's former ally, Pasquale Paoli. 

But the 2 soon had actually a fallout’s out, and when a civil war in Corsica started in April 1793, Napoleon, now an foe of Paoli, and his household relocated to France, where they suspect the French version of your name: Bonaparte. 

Napoleon’s return to France from Corsica started with a company with the French military, where he rejoined his regiment at Nice in June 1793.

Napoleon's Height

Napoleon stood around 5 feet and 7 inches tall, make him slightly taller than the mean Frenchman the his time. 

Much has actually been do of Napoleon's height, and also legends claim that he to be unusually short, offering rise to the ax "Napoleon complex," an inferiority facility sometimes connected with civilization of short stature.

Some chroniclers attribute the myths about Napoleon's height to brother propaganda. 



French Revolution

The chaos of the French transformation created methods for ambitious armed forces leaders like Napoleon. The young leader quickly showed his support for the Jacobins, a far-left political movement and the many well-known and popular political club from the French Revolution.

In 1792, three years after the revolution had begun, France was claimed a republic; the adhering to year, King luigi XVI to be executed. Ultimately, this acts brought about the rise of Maximilien de Robespierre and also what became, essentially, the dictatorship that the Committee of publicly Safety. 

The years of 1793 and 1794 became known as the power of Terror, in which many as 40,000 civilization were killed. Eventually the Jacobins dropped from power and also Robespierre to be executed. In 1795, the brochure (the French Revolutionary government) took control of the country, a strength it would it assume till 1799.

Napoleon’s increase to Power

After falling the end of favor through Robespierre, Napoleon came into the good graces the the directory in 1795 after he saved the federal government from counter-revolutionary forces. 

For his efforts, Napoleon to be soon named commander the the military of the Interior. In addition, he was a trusted advisor come the directory on armed forces matters.

In 1796, Napoleon took the helm that the military of Italy, a post he'd to be coveting. The army, simply 30,000 strong, disgruntled and underfed, was shortly turned around by the young military commander. 

Under his direction, the reinvigorated army won numerous an essential victories against the Austrians, greatly broadened the French empire and squashed an inner threat by the royalists, who wished to return France come a monarchy. Every one of these successes assisted make Napoleon the military's brightest star.

Napoleon and Josephine

Napoleon married Joséphine de Beauharnais, widow of basic Alexandre de Beauharnais (guillotined throughout the regime of Terror) and the mom of 2 children, on in march 9, 1796, in a polite ceremony.

Joséphine was unable to provide him a son, therefore in 1810, Napoleon arranged for the annulment of their marital relationship so that he might wed Marie-Louise, the 18-year-old daughter that the emperor that Austria.

The pair had a son, Napoleon II (a.k.a. The King the Rome) on in march 20, 1811.

Napoleon in Egypt

On July 1, 1798, Napoleon and his military traveled come the Middle eastern to undermine an excellent Britain's realm by occupying Egypt and disrupting English trade courses to India.

But his military project proved disastrous: On august 1, 1798, Admiral Horatio Nelson's fleet decimated Napoleon’s pressures in the fight of the Nile. 

Napoleon's photo - and also that that France - were greatly harmed by the loss, and in a present of newfound confidence against the commander, Britain, Austria, Russia and Turkey developed a new coalition against France. 

In the spring of 1799, French armies were defeated in Italy, forcing France to offer up lot of the peninsula. In October, Napoleon went back to France, whereby he was welcomed as a well-known military leader.

Coup that 18 Brumaire

Following his 1799 return to France, Napoleon participated in an occasion known as the Coup of 18 Brumaire, a bloodless coup d'etat that toppled the French Directory.



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The Directory was changed by a three-member consulate after a series of political and also military machinations orchestrated in huge part by Napoleon's brother Lucien Bonaparte. 

When Napoleon to be named first consul, he ended up being France’s top political figure. In ~ the fight of Marengo in 1800, Napoleon’s forces defeated the Austrians and also drove them indigenous the Italian peninsula. 

This armed forces victory cemented Napoleon’s government as an initial consul. Additionally, with the contract of Amiens in 1802, the war-weary British i agreeed to peace with the French (although the tranquility would only last because that a year).

Napoleonic Wars

The Napoleonic battles were a series of European battles lasting native 1803 to Napoleon’s 2nd abdication of strength in 1815.

In 1803, in part to advanced funds because that war, France sold its phibìc American Louisiana territory to the United says for $15 million, a transaction known as the Louisiana Purchase. Napoleon then returned to war with Britain, Russia and also Austria.

In 1805, the british registered vital naval victory against France at the battle of Trafalgar, i m sorry led Napoleon come scrap his plan to invade England. Instead, he collection his sights ~ above Austria and Russia, and also beat ago both militaries in the fight of Austerlitz. 

Other victories shortly followed, allowing Napoleon come greatly increase the French empire and also paving the method for loyalists to his federal government to be installed in Holland, Italy, Naples, Sweden, Spain and also Westphalia.

Napoleonic Code

On march 21, 1804, Napoleon denote the Napoleonic Code, otherwise well-known as the French polite Code, components of which room still in use about the world today. 

The Napoleonic code forbade privileges based upon birth, permitted freedom the religion, and stated that government jobs must be offered to the many qualified. The terms of the code space the main basis for countless other countries’ polite codes throughout Europe and also North America.

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The Napoleonic Code adhered to Napoleon's brand-new constitution, which developed the first consul — a place which price to nothing less than a dictatorship. Following the French Revolution, unrest ongoing in France; in June the 1799, a coup caused the left-wing radical group, the Jacobins, taking regulate of the Directory. 

Working with one of the brand-new directors, Emmanuel Sieyes, Napoleon flower plans because that a second coup the would ar the pair together with Pierre-Roger Ducos atop a new government referred to as the Consulate.