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You are watching: Which bone marking provides a site where bones articulate or to which ligaments and tendons attach?

StatPearls . Endowment Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2021 Jan-.


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Introduction

Bone markings space invaluable come the identification of individual bones and also bony piece and assist in the expertise of functional and also evolutionary anatomy. Lock are used by clinicians and surgeons, specifically orthopedists, radiologists, forensic scientists, detectives, osteologists, and anatomists. Return the untrained eye might overlook bone markings as contours that the bone, they are not together simple. Bone markings play an essential role in human and also animal anatomy and physiology. The use of bone markings arrays from enabling joints to slide past each various other or lock bones in place, providing structural assistance to muscle and connective tissue, and also providing circumferential stabilization and protection come nerves, vessels, and connective tissue. Understanding the prestige of bone markings offers a new appreciation and understanding that bony anatomy and its practical relationships with soft tissues.<1><2><3><4><5>

Common Bone Markings

Angles - sharp bony angulations that might serve together bony or soft organization attachments but often are supplied for specific anatomical description. Examples include the superior, inferior, and acromial angle of the scapula and the superior, inferior, lateral angles of the occiput.

Body - This usually describes the largest, most influential segment the bone. Examples include the diaphysis or shaft of lengthy bones prefer the femur and humerus.

Condyle - refers to a big prominence, which regularly provides structural assistance to the overlying hyaline cartilage. It bears the brunt the the pressure exerted from the joint. Examples encompass the knee joint (hinge joint), created by the femoral lateral and also medial condyles, and also the tibial lateral and medial condyles. Additionally, the occiput has actually an occipital condyle i beg your pardon articulates through atlas(C1) and also accounts for around 25 levels of cervical flexion and extension. 

Crest - A raised or prominent part of the leaf of a bone. Crests are frequently the sites wherein connective tissue attaches muscle to bone. The iliac stakes is discovered on the ilium.

Diaphysis - refers to the main part of the obelisk of a long bone. Lengthy bones, including the femur, humerus, and tibia, all have actually a shaft.

Epicondyle - A prominence that sit atop that a condyle. The epicondyle attaches muscle and also connective organization to bone, giving support come this musculoskeletal system. Examples incorporate the femoral medial and lateral epicondyles and humeral medial and also lateral epicondyles.

Epiphysis - The articulating segment the a bone, commonly at the bone"s proximal and also distal poles. The usually has a larger diameter than the obelisk (diaphysis). The epiphysis is vital for bone growth due to the fact that it sits nearby to the physeal line, also known as the expansion plate.

Facet - A smooth, flat surface that develops a share with an additional flat bone or one more facet, together producing a gliding joint. Examples can be watched in the facet joints the the vertebrae, which enable for flexion and extension of the spine. 

Fissure - An open up slit in a bone that usually houses nerves and also blood vessels. Examples encompass superior and also inferior orbit fissure.

Foramen - A hole v which nerves and blood ship pass. Examples incorporate supraorbital foramen, infraorbital foramen, and also mental foramen top top the cranium.

Fossa - A shallow depression in the bone surface. Here it may receive another articulating bone or act come support mind structures. Examples incorporate trochlear fossa, posterior, middle, and anterior cranial fossa.

Groove - A furrow in the bone surface ar that runs follow me the size of a ship or nerve, providing space to prevent compression by surrounding muscle or outside forces. Examples include a radial groove and the groove because that the transverse sinus.

Head - A rounded, prominent extension of bone the forms part of a joint. The is separated from the shaft of the bone by the neck. The head is usually extended in hyaline cartilage inside a synovial capsule. That is the key articulating surface with the surrounding bone, forming a "ball-and-socket" joint.

Margin - The edge of any flat bone. It have the right to be offered to define a bone"s boundaries accurately. Because that example, the leaf of the temporal bone articulating through the occipital bone is dubbed the occipital margin the the temporal bone. And vice versa, the sheet of the occipital bone articulating with the temporal bone is called the temporal margin of the occipital bone.

Meatus - A tube-like channel the extends in ~ the bone, which may provide passage and protection to nerves, vessels, and even sound. Examples incorporate external acoustic meatus and also internal hear meatus.

Neck - The segment between the head and the pillar of a bone. The is frequently demarcated from the head through the visibility of the physeal line in pediatric patients and also the physeal scar (physeal heat remnant) in adults. The is regularly separated right into the surgical neck and also anatomical neck. The anatomical neck, which may represent the old epiphyseal plate, is regularly demarcated through its attachment to capsular ligaments. The surgical neck is often more distal and is demarcated through the site on the neck that is most generally fractured. For example, in the humerus, the anatomical neck runs obliquely indigenous the higher tuberosity to simply inferior to the humeral head. The operation neck runs horizontally and a couple of centimeters distal come the humeral tuberosities.

Notch - A depression in a bone which often, yet not always, offers stabilization come an nearby articulating bone. The articulating bone will certainly slide into and also out of the notch, guiding the range of motion of the joint. Examples incorporate the trochlear notch top top the ulna, radial notch that the ulna, suprasternal notch, and the mandibular notch.

Ramus - The curved component of a bone that provides structural assistance to the rest of the bone. Examples include the superior/inferior pubic ramus and ramus of the mandible.

Sinus - A cavity within any organ or tissue. Examples incorporate paranasal sinuses and also dural venous sinuses.

Spinous process - A raised, spicy elevation the bone whereby muscles and connective tissue attach. That is different than a normal process in that a spinous procedure is an ext pronounced.

Trochanter - A large prominence on the next of the bone. Some of the biggest muscle groups and most thick connective tissues affix to the trochanter. The many notable examples are the greater and lesser trochanters that the femur.

Tuberosity - A moderate prestige where muscles and also connective tissues attach. Its duty is comparable to that of a trochanter. Examples incorporate the tibial tuberosity, deltoid tuberosity, and also ischial tuberosity.

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Tubercle - A small, rounded prestige where connective organization attach. Examples encompass the greater and also lesser tubercle that the humerus.