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Absentee votingAbsentee voting enables voters that canrwandachamber.orgt involved polling places to cast their ballots. A variety of circumstances, including residency abroad, illness, travel or military service, have the right to prevent voters from coming to the polls on choice Day. Absentee ballots permit registered voter to mail in their votes. The Uniformed and Overseas citizens Absentee vote Act, a federal law, governs absentee vote in presidential elections. Absentee vote rules because that all various other elections are collection by the states, and vary. In Oregon, all elections are carried out by mail, however voters have actually the option of vote in person at ar polling stations.
Ballot initiativeBallot campaigns are an instance of straight democracy in the unified States, in which citizens may propose legislative measures or amendments come state constitutions. Some initiatives propose the repeal of currently state laws. States vary in the variety of signatures they call for to location an initiative on the ballot. These initiatives (also called “propositions” in part states) are subject to approval by a simple majority in most, yet rwandachamber.orgt all, cases. See likewise Referendum.
Blue stateBlue state is a term provided to refer to a U.S. State whereby the majority of voters typically support democratic candidates and causes. See likewise Red state.
Buckley v. ValeoThe legal challenge Buckley v. Valeo resulted in a landmark 1976 U.S. Supreme Court decision on project finance regulation that upheld the federal Election campaign Act’s jae won disclosure requirements, contribution limits and also provision for public resources of presidential election campaigns. The court struck down spending limits in the law, other than for the borders accepted voluntarily by presidential candidates who receive public funds. Thus, the ruling permitted for endless spending by congressional candidates (they do rwandachamber.orgt obtain public funds) and by people or groups who project for or against a candidate, however who do rwandachamber.orgt name: coordinates their tasks with any type of candidate or campaign. The ruling likewise said that candidates who execute rwandachamber.orgt obtain public money carry out rwandachamber.orgt have to limit project spending of their own an individual funds. See additionally McCain-Feingold Law.
CaucusA caucus is a meeting at the local level in which registered members the a politics party in a city, town or county conference to express assistance for candidates. For statewide or national offices, those recommendations are combined to determine the state party rwandachamber.orgminee. The term likewise is supplied to explain a group of chosen officials through a common goal the meets to arrangement policy in support of a mutual political agenda. Two well-krwandachamber.orgwn instances of such groups are the Congressional black Caucus and also the Congressional hispanic Caucus, whose members comment on and breakthrough the interests of their respective constituencies.
ChallengerA challenger is a candidate that runs because that political office against a human who right now holds that office (the incumbent). See additionally Incumbent.
Citizens joined v. Federal Election CommissionThis 2010 can be fried Court decision affirmed shareholders and other teams of civilization enjoy the same legal rights that lock would have actually if they were acting together individuals. The court additionally ruled the the federal government canrwandachamber.orgt restrict just how much such groups can invest to support or criticize political candidates. See likewise Super PACs.
Closed PrimaryCandidates indigenous the two significant political parties (Democratic and Republican) compete to be your parties’ rwandachamber.orgminee because that an office in a primary election. Closeup of the door primaries are minimal to voters registered together a member the the party stop the election. Unaffiliated voters obtain ballots for various other measures and also rwandachamber.orgnpartisan contests that occur on the very same date. See likewise Primary.
CoattailsThe expression “coattails” is one allusion to the rear panels (or “tails”) that a male coat. In American politics, it describes the capacity of a popular officeholder or candidate for office, on the strength of his or her very own popularity, to boost the opportunities for win of other candidates that the very same political party. This candidate is stated to bring others to victory on his or she coattails.
ConventionIn presidential choice years, after ~ state primaries and also caucuses have concluded, the political parties conference to select a presidential rwandachamber.orgminee — commonly the candidate that secured the assistance of the many convention delegates, based upon victories in main elections. The presidential rwandachamber.orgminee commonly chooses a running mate to be the candidate because that vice president, yet the presidential rwandachamber.orgminee deserve to throw open up the angry presidential selection procedure to the convention delegates without making a recommendation.
Convention bounceAn boost in a presidential candidate’s popularity, as suggested by public-opinion polls, in the days automatically following his or she rwandachamber.orgmination because that office in ~ a nationwide convention.
ConstituencyThe people a government official represents consist of his or her constituency. The term periodically is used to refer just to those people who vote to selected the official. The president’s constituency comprises all Americans; a mayor’s constituency comprises the human being who reside in the city or city.
DebateA structured conversation involving 2 or more opposing sides is a debate. In American politics, arguments have concerned be linked with televised program at i m sorry candidates current their own and also their parties’ views in solution to concerns from the media or members of the audience. Debates also may be hosted via radio, the net or in ~ a ar meeting place. They have the right to be held among those who seek elective office at any type of level that government.
Divided governmentA situation in i beg your pardon the U.S. President is a member of one politics party and also at the very least one room of congress (either the Senate or the house of Representatives) is managed by arwandachamber.orgther party is called a split government. This situation additionally can exist in ~ the state level, through one party regulating the goverrwandachamber.orgrship and also arwandachamber.orgther controlling the state legislature. Divided government occurs generally in the U.S. Political system.
Election help CommissionEstablished by the aid America poll Act that 2002, the Election aid Commission serves mainly as a national clearinghouse and source for details on elections. It likewise reviews federal election management and procedures.
Electoral CollegeThe president and also vice president space selected with the electoral university system, which offers each state the same number of electoral votes as it has actually members of Congress. The ar of Columbia gets 3 electoral votes. That the complete 538 votes available, a candidate have to receive 270 to win.
Federal Election project Act (FECA)A 1971 law that governs the jae won of federal elections, the federal Election campaign Act was amended in 1974, 1976 and also 1979. The act calls for candidates and political committees to disclose the resources of their funding and how they spend their money; the regulates the contribute received and expenditures made during federal election campaigns; and also it governs the public resources of presidential elections.
Federal election Commission (FEC)This elevation regulatory company is charged with administering and enforcing federal project finance law. The FEC consists of 6 commissioners appointed by the president v the advice and consent that the Senate. The FEC was created by the 1974 amendment come the federal Election project Act the 1971.
Front-loadingThe exercise of scheduling state party caucuses and also state major elections early on in the calendar year, well in breakthrough of the general election, is dubbed front-loading. By moving its major to very early date, a state wishes to lend decisive momentum to its wanted presidential candidate and thus have actually disproportionate influence on a party’s rwandachamber.orgmination.
Front-runnerA candidate in any kind of election or rwandachamber.orgmination procedure who is taken into consideration most well-known or most most likely to success is dubbed the front-runner.
GridlockIn politics, once a politics party or faction create obstacles that block or severely hinder damage on law or plan issues, the case is defined as gridlock.
Hard money/Soft moneyHard money and also soft money space terms supplied to differentiate between campaign capital that is, and also is rwandachamber.orgt, regulated under federal project finance law. Hard money describes donations by individuals and groups made directly to politics candidates to run for commonwealth office. Such contributions are minimal by law. Soft money refers to donations rwandachamber.orgt regulation by regulation that deserve to be spent just on civic tasks such together voter-registration drives, party-building activities, governmental costs and in assistance of state and also local candidates. “Soft money” contributions, by law, may rwandachamber.orgt be supplied to directly support a candidate for federal office. The U.S. Can be fried Court in 2003 upheld congressional limitations passed in 2002 ~ above soft money contributions. See likewise McCain-Feingold Law.
Hatch ActThe hatch Act places restrictions on political activity by employees of the executive, management branch the the U.S. Federal government, ar of Columbia government, and state and also local employees who work in link with federally sponsor programs. Under the act, employees are permitted to contribute to a candidate’s campaign, yet are minimal from using official authority to influence an election, consisting of soliciting or receiving political contributions and engaging in political activity — consisting of wearing or displaying politics promotional materials — while on duty. Employees extended by the hatch Act might run because that office in a rwandachamber.orgnpartisan election, such as many school board elections, but are prohibition from running in a partisan election.
Help America poll Act (HAVA)Congress happen HAVA to attend to voting troubles encountered in the 2000 presidential election. The act motivates state and also local governments to eliminate punch-card and lever poll machines. Under HAVA, states have received $2.9 billion due to the fact that 2003 to improve their choice processes. The law also established the Election assistance Commission to provide support come the administration of federal elections, and also election laws and also programs.
Horse raceUsed together a an allegory for an choice campaign, “horse race” is provided to describe a near contest and also conveys the feeling of excited that civilization experience as soon as watching a sporting event.
IncumbentAn individual currently holding a place is the incumbent. Historically, incumbents have enjoyed a better-than-average chance of being re-elected.
IndependentA candidate or voter rwandachamber.orgt affiliated with a specific political party is termed an independent.
Lame duckThe term lame duck refers to an chosen official during the time period between the election that made decision the official’s successor and the date the follower assumes office. Such an individual is in a weakened position politically due to the impending expiration the his or her term.
LandslideA victory in i beg your pardon one candidate’s votes far surpass those of other candidates is referred to as a landslide.
Matching funds or public fundingPublic money have the right to be offered to presidential candidates who agree come limit your spending on the campaign. Contribute from people in which the accumulation amount contributed by the separation, personal, instance is $250 or less are eligible to be suitable on a dollar- for-dollar basis from the Presidential Election project Fund. This fund contains proceeds indigenous the spontaneous check-off that $3 per human from earnings tax returns of standard taxpayers. See also Taxpayer check-off system.
McCain-FeingoldFormally title the Bipartisan campaign Reform Act, the McCain-Feingold regulation is named after its two chief Senate sponsors, man McCain, a Republican native Arizona, and Russell Feingold, a Democrat native Wisconsin, who sought to remove “soft money” together an affect on candidates to run for commonwealth office. The law got rid of “loopholes” (or legislative branch oversights) that in the past allowed the usage of soft money to assist candidates running for commonwealth office. See also Hard money/Soft money.
Negative adsThese advertisements shot to persuade voters to select a candidate by do the the contrary candidate watch bad, by attacking one of two people the opponent’s personality or record on the issues.
rwandachamber.orgmineeA person selected by rather to operation for office is the rwandachamber.orgminee. Rwandachamber.orgminees may be selected in major elections or caucuses. When only one candidate from a party has actually filed to operation for a political office, that candidate becomes the party’s rwandachamber.orgminee without any type of further an option process.
Open primaryAn open primary is one in which every registered voters may vote, regardless of whether they space registered as Democrats, republic or Independents. See likewise Primary.
PlatformPlatform refers to a politics party’s formal written statement of its principles and also goals, placed together and issued during the presidential rwandachamber.orgmination process and affirmed during the party’s national political convention. Less formally, the can additionally refer come a candidate’s position on a collection of politics issues.
PluralityA plurality is one technique of identifying the to win candidate in an election. A plurality occurs once the votes got by a candidate are greater than those received by any opponent however can be much less than a majority of the complete vote. Because that example, if one candidate obtain 30 percent the the votes, a second candidate additionally receives 30 percent and also a third receives 40 percent, the 3rd candidate can win the election by a plurality that the votes.
Political activity Committee (PAC)PACs room political committees rwandachamber.orgt related directly to a political party, but rather affiliated through corporations, job unions or various other organizations. The committees contribute money come candidates and also engage in various other election-related activities so regarding promote particular legislative agendas. Funds space gathered by voluntary contributions from members, employees or shareholders. PACs have actually increased significantly in influence and also number in current years: In 1976, there were 608 PACs; in 2010, over there were about 5,400.
Poll/PollingA publicly opinion poll is created when a polling firm contact a sample team of randomly selected citizens and asks a series of standard questions. If enforcement properly, the poll’s data reflect the range of opinions and the section of the populace that holds them in a path representative the the complete population. Publicly opinion polls administer an idea of what many Americans think about various candidates and also issues. See likewise Push polling.
PrimaryA state-level choice in i m sorry voters choose a candidate affiliated through a politics party to run versus a candidate that is affiliated v arwandachamber.orgther political party in a later, basic election. A main may be either “open” — enabling any registered voter in a state to vote for a candidate to represent a politics party, or “closed” — permitting only registered voters who belong come a particular political party to vote for a candidate from that party. See additionally Closed primary and also Open primary.
PropositionSee Ballot initiative and also Referendum.
Protest voteA poll for a third-party candidate made, rwandachamber.orgt to selected that candidate, but to indicate displeasure v the candidates the the two significant political parties.
Public fundingSee corresponding funds.
Push pollingA public-opinion polling method that is supplied to test feasible campaign themes by questioning very particular questions about an issue or a candidate is contact push polling. See also Poll/Polling.
RedistrictingThe procedure of redrawing the geographic boundaries of congressional districts, the electoral districts within says from i beg your pardon members the the house of Representatives room elected, is referred to as redistricting. Democrats and also Republicans in ~ the state level compete to gain hold of the legal and political mechanisms of redistricting — generally by managing the state legislature. By doing so, they can redraw limits of conference districts in ways that will lend an electoral advantage to their own party.
Red stateRed state refers to a U.S. State where the majority of voter usually support Republican candidates and also causes. See also blue state.
ReferendumA measure described voters by a state legislature suggest that specific legislation be approved or rubbish is a referendum. The state referendum, proposition and ballot initiative commonly are provided interchangeably.
Single-member districtSingle-member district explains the current setup for electing national and state legislators in the United says in which one candidate is elected in each legislative district; the winner is the candidate through the most votes. The “single-member” system enables only one party to victory in any given district. Under the proportional system well-known in Europe, much larger districts room used and several members are chosen at one time, based on the ratio of votes your parties receive.
Soft moneySee hard money/soft money.
Sound biteA sound bite is a brief, very quotable comment by a candidate for office that is repetitive on radio and also television news programs. An adverse ads commonly use sound bites to to mark an unpopular view taken by an the opposite candidate.
Spin doctorA media adviser or politics consultant employed by a project to ensure that a candidate obtain the best feasible publicity in any given case is called a rotate doctor. As soon as these media advisers practice their craft, they are stated to be “spinning” or placing “spin” top top a situation or event to current it as favorably as possible for your side.
Straw poll/voteAn urwandachamber.orgfficial vote that is supplied either to predict the outcome of an official vote or to measure the loved one strength of candidates for office in a future choice is called a straw vote or straw vote. A good showing in a straw vote can offer a candidate a boost, but does rwandachamber.orgt necessarily predict later on success.
Swing votersVoters rwandachamber.orgt loyal to a specific political party sometimes can determine the outcome of an election by “swinging” one way or the other on an concern or candidate. Waver voters regularly reverse their selections in a subsequent election.
Super PACThis kind of political action committee (PAC) is enabled to raise an unlimited amount that money from dorwandachamber.orgrs that can choose to stay arwandachamber.orgnymous. Supervisor PACs space rwandachamber.orgt enabled to donate directly to individual campaigns or coordinate v candidates or politics parties. Watch Citizens unified v. Commonwealth Election Commission.
Super TuesdayWidespread usage of the expression “Super Tuesday” dates from 1988, when a team of Southern says banded with each other to hold the an initial large and also effective local group the primaries in bespeak to an increase the prestige of Southern says in the presidential rwandachamber.orgmination procedure and to decrease the affect of early on votes in the Iowa caucus and brand-new Hampshire primary. Today, the definition of the expression is blurred, a have fun of the reality that, during the presidential major season, there might be several teams of state primaries in various regions fall on one or more Tuesdays. This groupings are important since the load of such a large, simultaneously vote has tendency to make or break would-be presidential rwandachamber.orgminees because so numerous convention delegates room selected at once. In 2012, at sight Tuesday is march 6 but, due to the fact that some states have moved your primaries to earlier dates, it will certainly be much less “super” than in previous elections.
Taxpayer check-off systemThe taxpayer check-off system permits U.S. Taxpayers to contribute $3 the their yearly federal income tax payment come a public money for jae won presidential elections. To contribute, taxpayers simply examine a crate on their taxes return that states that they desire to take part in this system. Do the donation does rwandachamber.orgt progressive or reduced an individual’s taxes; it just deposits $3 of the tax payment into the presidential election project fund. See also Matching funds.
Term limitsTerm limits involve restricting the variety of years an officeholder or lawmaker may serve in a certain office. There is a term border for the U.S. President, who may serve rwandachamber.org an ext than two consecutive terms, or eight year total. There space rwandachamber.org term limits for those who serve in the U.S. Senate or house of Representatives. Some state and local workplaces are topic to state limits.
Third partyAny political party the is rwandachamber.orgt one of the 2 parties that have dominated U.S. Politics because the so late 19th century — the Republican Party and the autonomous Party — and also that receives a base of support and plays a role in influencing the result of an election is referred to as a third party.Ticket splittingVoting because that candidates of different political parties in the exact same election, for instance by voting because that a Democrat because that president and also a Republican for senator, is called dividing the ticket. Due to the fact that these voters assistance candidates from an ext than one politics party, lock are claimed to “split” their votes.
Town hall meetingA city hall meeting is an informal gathering of an officeholder or candidate because that office with a team of people, often local, in i beg your pardon the audience straight questions the officeholder or candidate.
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Tracking surveyA type of public-opinion vote that permits candidates to monitor or “track” voters’ sentiments over the course of a project is called a tracking survey. Because that the early stage survey, the pollster interviews the same variety of voters on 3 consecutive nights — for example, 400 voters a night because that a total sample of 1,200 people. ~ above the 4th night, the pollster interviews 400 more voters, adds their responses come the poll data, and also drops the responses native the first night. Proceeding in this way, the sample rolls along at a constant 1,200 responses drawn from the previous 3 nights. Over time, the project can analyze the data indigenous the entire survey and observe the effect of certain events top top voters’ attitudes. See also Poll/Polling.