The second Party System

The 2nd Party System, consisting mainly of the Democrats and also Whigs, contributed to rising levels of voter investment and also partisanship.

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Learning Objectives

Summarize the origins, development, and crucial characteristics of the second Party System


Key Takeaways

Key PointsThe second Party System occurred in 1828, with enhancing levels the voter interest and also partisan identification leading into the presidential election.The 2nd Party system is the first and only party device in which the two major parties remained on about equal footing in every region.The device reflected and shaped the political, social, economic, and cultural currents of the Jacksonian Era until succeeded by the third Party system in 1854.Key TermsJacksonian Democracy: The political motion toward greater democracy for the usual man typified by American politician, Andrew Jackson, and also his supporters.Second Party System: A term offered by historians and also political researchers to surname the political framework existing in the United states from about 1828 to 1854.Whig Party: A political team of the unified States throughout the era of Jacksonian democracy; considered integral come the 2nd Party System and also operating from the early 1830s to the mid-1850s, it was formed in opposition to the policies of president Andrew Jackson.

Introduction

A turning point in American political history occurred in 1828,when Andrew Jackson was chosen over the incumbent man Quincy Adams. While democratic practices had remained in ascendance since 1800, the year likewise saw the further unfolding the a autonomous spirit in the joined States. Supporters of Jackson dubbed themselves democracy or the Democracy, providing birth come the democratic Party and thus inaugurating the 2nd Party System. The second Party device existed in the United claims from around 1828 to 1854.

The American political system underwent an essential change after ~ 1820 under the rubric that Jacksonian democracy. If Jackson self did not initiate the changes, he came to symbolize plenty of of the changes that take it place. Because that the an initial time, politics assumed a central role in voters’ lives. Prior to then, deference to upper-class elites and general indifference often had characterized local politics throughout the country. The suffrage laws were not completely at fault; rather, couple of men to be interested in politics before 1828, and fewer still voted or ended up being engaged because politics did not seem important.

Changes complied with the emotional shock that the panic of 1819 and also the 1828 choice of Andrew Jackson, who had a charismatic personality and controversial policies. The 1828 choice year was characterized by rising levels the voter attention as demonstrated by choice Day turnout, rallies, increasingly partisan newspapers, and also a greater degree that voter commitment to your party. By 1840, campaigns were increasingly defined by appeals to the typical man, v elections generating greater voter participation 보다 they formerly had. The democratization the American politics was well underway.

Major football player of the second Party System

The major parties throughout this time included the democratic Party, led by Andrew Jackson, and the Whig Party, assembled through Henry Clay native the nationwide Republicans and also other opponents of Jackson. Martin valve Buren, man C. Calhoun, James K. Polk, Lewis Cass, and also Stephen Douglas are among the finest known autonomous figures the this period. Prominent Whig politicians contained Daniel Webster, wilhelm H. Seward, and Thurlow Weed.

The Whig Party activate from the beforehand 1830s come the mid-1850s and was formed in opposition come the policies of chairman Andrew Jackson and also his autonomous Party. In particular, the Whigs sustained the supremacy of Congress end the presidency and favored a regimen of modernization and economic protectionism.

Minor parties contained the Anti-Masonic Party, which was an important innovator indigenous 1827 to 1834 and also flourished in just those says with a weak second party; the abolitionist Liberty Party the the 1840s; and also the antislavery totally free Soil Party, active in the 1848 and also 1852 elections. The second Party device reflected and shaped the political, social, economic, and cultural currents that the Jacksonian Era until flourished by the third Party system in 1854.

Patterns

According to chronicler Richard P. McCormick, that is is well-known for his scholarship ~ above the second Party System, the structure was developed over a 15-year period that varied by state, and it was developed by leaders trying to win the presidency v contenders structure their own national coalitions. Regional effects strongly influenced its developments, v the Adams pressures strongest in brand-new England, for example, and also the Jacksonians strongest in the Southwest.

This period marked the an initial time two-party national politics were prolonged to the South and also West, both that which had actually previously been one-party regions. The second Party device was also the first, and remains the only, party device in which the two major parties stayed on about equal footing in every region. The same two parties showed up in every state and also contested both electoral votes and also state offices. Because of this local balance, the 2nd Party system was fragile to region-specific worries such as slavery.


The election of 1828 and the character Issue

The election of 1828 in between John Quincy Adams and Andrew Jackson saw a large number of personality attacks and increased partisanship.


Learning Objectives

Summarize the circumstances leading approximately the choice of 1828 and the duty character play in the election


Key Takeaways

Key PointsThe election of 1828 was a rematch between the incumbent president, john Quincy Adams, and also the runner-up in the 1824 election, Andrew Jackson.The choice of 1828 was an important turning allude in American politics; part historians and political researchers argue the it presented the prototype for contemporary American politics and also the two-party mechanism that we recognize today.The choice is additionally notable because that the personal attacks that developed between the the opposite candidates, who had actually a long and also controversial political history together, dating ago to the hotly disputed election the 1824.Jackson winner an overwhelming success over Adams, recording 56 percent that the well-known vote and 68 percent that the electoral vote and also bringing the democratic Party into power.Key TermsSecond Party System: A term provided by historians and political scientists to define the political mechanism existing in the United claims from around 1828 come 1854.corrupt bargain: A term introduce to three historical incidents in American background in which political commitment was identified by congressional or presidential action that many viewed to be corruption from various standpoints.

Introduction: The election of 1828

The U.S. Presidential election of 1828 featured a rematch between John Quincy Adams, the incumbent president, and also Andrew Jackson, the runner-up in the 1824 election. With no other significant candidates, Jackson and also his chef ally, Martin van Buren, consolidated their bases in the south and brand-new York and also easily beat Adams. The democratic Party obtained its toughness from the existing pendant of Jackson and also their coalition through the supporters of Crawford (the Old republic ) and Vice chairman Calhoun.

The election significant the rise of Jacksonian democracy on the nationwide stage and the change from the first Party System, of i beg your pardon Jeffersonian democracy to be characteristic, come the second Party System. Historians dispute the significance of the election, with many arguing that it marked the beginning of modern-day American politics and also the development of the two-party system.

Nominations

The nomination that the autonomous Party to be Andrew Jackson, former senator from Tennessee. Jackson welcomed the incumbent angry president, john C. Calhoun, as his running mate. Jackson’s supporters referred to as themselves “Democrats,” therefore marking the advancement of Jefferson’s Democratic- Republican Party right into the modern Democratic Party.

The national Republican Party nomination was man Quincy Adams (of Massachusetts), the incumbent chairman of the united States. Adams accepted Secretary that the Treasury Richard sirloin of Pennsylvania as his angry presidential running mate. Adams supporters called themselves “National Republicans,” and were antecedents that the Whig Party the the 1830s and, later, the Republican Party.

General Election

Campaign

The 1828 project differed substantially from earlier presidential contests since of the party company that supported Andrew Jackson. Jackson and also his supporters reminded voter of the “corrupt bargain” that 1824. Castle framed it as the occupational of a tiny group of politics elites, who, acting in a self-serving manner and also ignoring the will of the majority, made decision who would lead the nation. From Nashville, Tennessee, the Jackson project organized supporters around the country through editorials in partisan newspapers and other publications. Pro-Jackson newspapers heralded the “hero of brand-new Orleans” when denouncing Adams. Despite he did no wage an election campaign filled with public appearances, Jackson did offer one significant campaign speech in brand-new Orleans on January 8, the anniversary of the defeat of the brothers in 1815. He also engaged in rounds of conversation with politicians who concerned his home, the Hermitage, in Nashville.

At the regional level, Jackson’s supporters functioned to lug in together many brand-new voters together possible. Rallies, parades, and other rituals additional broadcast the article that Jackson stood for the common man, that stood in comparison to the corrupt elite backing Adams and Clay. Democratic organizations dubbed “Hickory Clubs,” a tribute to Jackson’s nickname, “Old Hickory,” likewise worked tirelessly to ensure his election.

The project was significant by an superior amount the mudslinging. Jackson was struck for his marriage, his court martial and also execution the deserters, his massacres the American Indian villages, and also his habit that dueling. It was charged the Adams, if serving together minister come Russia, had actually surrendered an American servant girl to the appetites the the czar. Adams additionally was accused of making use of public accumulation to purchase gambling gadgets for the presidential residence; however, further investigation failed to substantiate this claims.

Results

The an option of electors started on October 31, 1828, v elections in Ohio and also Pennsylvania, and ended on November 13 with elections in phibìc Carolina. The Electoral university met ~ above December 3.

Adams winner the brand-new England states, brand-new Jersey, and Delaware. In addition, Adams choose up Maryland. Jackson won whatever else, however, recording 56 percent of the renowned vote and 68 percent that the electoral vote and also resulting in an overwhelming win over Adams. As in 1800, as soon as Jefferson had won over the Federalist incumbent, man Adams, the presidency passed to a new political party, the Democrats. The choice was the orgasm of several years of expanding democracy in the joined States and also the finish of the older national politics of deference.

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Electoral college votes in the election of 1828: This map illustrates the Electoral university votes for Jackson and Adams because that each state. Jackson won the bulk by a landslide, through Adams only winning the new England states, new Jersey, Delaware, and also Maryland.