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Mr. Giotto"s Online Textbook » Old Rome » The Second Punic War

The Second Punic WarHannibal"s War

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huge viewHannibal"s Oath

The Mercenary War & The Second Punic War

The Mercenary War (240-237 BC)

Carthage had to pay its mercenary soldiers after the First Punic War, even though Carthage shed the battle to Rome. Rome compelled Carthage to pay for damperiods after the war, so Carthage had actually incredibly bit left to pay the mercenaries. A disagreement over payment in between the mercenaries and also Carthage caused the Mercenary War. Hamilauto Barca, the excellent Carthaginian leader of the First Punic War, now returned to Africa to execute fight versus the same mercenaries who were component of his army fighting against Rome in Sicily. Although Hamilvehicle succeeded, Rome took the possibility of taking manage of the islands of Corsica and also Sardinia while Carthage was prepopulated with the Mercenary War. This reduced off some of Carthage’s main trade paths, and also forced Carthage to look for new lands to include to its empire. Thenegative feelingsin between the two powers of Rome and Carthage continued, and Hamilvehicle Barca had even more reason to hate Rome. It was just a matter of time prior to the 2 great powers would clash aobtain.

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The 2nd Punic War (218-201 BC)

Distrusting the Carthaginian politicians who surrendered to Rome, Hamilcar Barca moved to Iberia (modern-day Spain) looking to expand Carthaginian region, and to one day assault Rome through an army from Spain. Before he left for Spain, Hamilcar made his kid, Hannibal, at a really young age, take an oath to hate Rome as long as he lived. It was only after taking this oath that Hamilautomobile agreed to take his boy through him to Spain; and so, the hatred for Rome was passed on from father to kid.

Hamilauto did incredibly well in Spain, including area to the Carthaginia realm and also defeating the Iberians. One day he was killed in battle, and also eventually his son Hannibal came to be the brand-new Carthaginian leader in Iberia. Hannibal, moving on his father"s ambitionof revenge onRome,struck thecity-state of Seguntum in Spain, an ally of Rome. After this effective siege, Hannibal crossed the Ebro River, which violated the treaty through Rome.

Rome asserted battle on Carthage, and also sent an armytoward Spain. Hannibal"s younger brvarious other, Hasdrubalstayed tosafeguard Spain,as Hannibal"s substantial army, which consisted of 37 war elephants, crossed over the Pyrenees Mountains, right into Gaul (modern-day France), throughout the Rhone River, and also then into the Alps. (See map: Hannibal"s route) This was the a lot of challenging component of the journey, many men, andnearly halfof Hannibal"s elephants, were shed in the Alps. Those in hisarmythat made it through could now look right into Italy"s Po River Valley, where Hannibal hoped to make allies of the Gauls, who also hated the Romans.

Hannibal had actually many kind of victories versus the Roguy legions in Italy, consisting of the battles at Trebia River andLake Trasimene. Desperate and in a crisis, Romeelected a dictator named Fabius. A dictator in the Romale republic was one person chosen for 6 monthswho had actually full regulate of all decisions governingRome.Fabius determined the ideal means to defeat Hannibal was to prevent fight and also deprive him and also his army of victory and gives. These so-dubbed "Fabian Tactics"seemed to job-related, yet running from Hannibal"s army hurt Roman pride. After Fabian"s dictatorship finished, the two Romale consuls, Varro, a risk-taker, and Paullus, the even more cautious commander, ledthe entire armyon alternate days. They would certainly clash through Hannibal at theBattle of Cannae (August 2, 216 BC)in southern Italy.

Cannae is additionally referred to as the battle of annihilation; right here, Hannibal"s army completely damaged the 2 Roman legions. Before this masterpiece of armed forces strategy, where the Romans out-numbered the Carthaginians two-to-one, Hannibal and his frifinish, Gisgo, watched from a hill as the Roman forces rolled into the openarea at Cannae. Gisgo, amazed at the size of the Roguy army shelp, "They are so many kind of in number!" Hannibal"s famous reply was, "You are incredibly observant regarding the numbers of the Romale army, yet tbelow is one thing you missed, that in all those soldiers that will challenge us in battle today, there is not a one named Gisgo!" This made Gisgo and the other commanders laugh, and also they proceeded to trick the large Roguy army into being surrounded by Hannibal"s smaller sized pressures. Unable to use the size of their army to an advantage, and also unable to maneuver, the Romale army was damaged. Paullus, the even more careful of the two Roguy consuls was eliminated in battle.

Hannibal waited, and also then marchedhis army nearRome to try to pressure the city to surrender, however hehad actually no siege equipment to take the city. One of his leaders criticized Hannibal, he said, "You recognize just how to win a battle, however not just how to win a battle." As badly as the Romans had actually been beat, they were constantly able to raise an additional army, on the other hand, though Hannibal prospered, he was running out of sources, and also the political leaders in Carthage were reluctant to provide him any help.

Now Rome decided to take the battle to Carthage, as they had tried in the time of the First Punic War. This time Scipio, a good basic who had been studying Hannibal"s techniques, led the Roman armies into Africa. The Carthaginians referred to as Hannibal back to Carthage to safeguard the city,Hannibal had actually invested 16 years in Italy, however nowhis Italian project was over.

The last fight of the war remained in Africa near Zama, before the Battle of Zama (October 19, 202 BC), Scipio and Hannibal had actually a meeting in the middle location in between the militaries. Although adversaries in battle, they had got a good respect and also friendship on a perchild level.

Zama was the only fight of the Second Punic War that had a large amount of elephants on the battlearea. Most most likely namong these elephants were the original 37 elephants that Hannibal took to Italy, 17 of those elephants died crossing the Alps, and also the others passed away in northern Italy, other than for Surus, Hannibal"s personal elephant, which he rode to gain a far better see of the landscape after shedding the sight in one of his eyes.

See more: Eugenic Population Policies Example, Ap Human Geography Unit 2

Scipio beat Hannibal at Zama, and also within a year, the Carthaginians sue for peace. The Roguy terms were harsh; Carthage lostIberia (Spain)to Rome,had actually to pay 10,000 talents for war dameras, andits navy was limited to 10 ships to defend againstpiprices.Carthage was alsoforbidden from elevating an army without Rome"s permission. As for Hannibal, Scipio did not demand that Carthage hand him over to Rome. It is feasible that he wanted to spare his frifinish from being paraded in the streets of Rome as a prisoner. Rome and also Carthage would clash aobtain for one last time.

Second Punic War timeline (218-201 BC)

218 BC – Hannibal leaves Spain with an army to assault Rome

216 BC – Hannibal annihilates the Roman army at Cannae

215 BC –Syracusage breaks alliance via Rome

215 BC- Philip V of Macedonia allies himself with Hannibal

214-212 BC – Roguy siege of Syracusage, entailing Archimedes

202 BC – Scipio defeats Hannibal at Zama

201 BC – Carthage surrenders

Outcome – Carthage gives up Spain, its army and navy.

197 BC - Battle of Cynoscephalae, Rome detasks Philip V of Macedonia, a previous ally of Hannibal, in Greece

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