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HOW TO the FUNDAMENTALS of LIGHT, RE N DERSHADOW and REFLECTIVITY by Scott Robertchild with Thomas Bertling




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TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION I PAGE 8 CHAPTER 01 What Is Rendering?+ Tools and Materials I PAGE 13l 3 How We See Form l 3 Content Synopsis 14 Tools and also Materials CHAPTER 02 Light Types and Casting Shad,ows I PAGE 11 l 8 Value Change = Form Change 20 Direct, Hard Light 21 Direct, Soft Light 22 Light Decay, A.K.A. Falloff 23 Occlusion 24 Edge/Rim Light, Half-Light 25 Multiple Light Sources 26 Reflected Light 27 Sunbeams 2 8 Atmospheric Perspective 30 Constructing Cast Shadows 30 Perspective Grid Skills 30 Form-Building Skills 31 Construction Skills 31 Section-Drawing Skills 32 The Fundamentals of Casting Shadows 32 Light/Shadow Direction and Light Planes 32 Casting the Shadow of a Single Stick in Perspective 33 Shadow Construction via Local Light 33 Local Light Shadow Construction : Multiple Sticks on a Single Level 33 Local Light Shadow Construction : Multiple Sticks on Multiple Levels 34 Sunlight Construction 34 Light Plane Set-Up for Sunlight 34 Sunlight Construction: Finding the Shadow Origin and Light Source 34 Positive Sunlight Construction : Backlight 35 Negative Sunlight Construction : Front Light 35 Sunlight Construction: Shadow Origin and Light Source off the Page 35 Sunlight Construction without Convergence 35 Sunlight Construction : Casting Shadows on Multiple Levels 36 Casting Shadows of Wall surface Shapes 36 Casting Shadows over Obstacles 36 Casting a Stick's Shadow on a Wall surface 38 Casting the Shadow of a Vertical Stick onto an Object 39 Casting the Shadow of a Horizontal Stick onto a Wall surface 39 Casting the Shadow of a Horizontal Sick onto a Wall and also the Ground 40 Casting the Shadow of a Horizontal Stick Beyond the Edge of a Wall, onto the Ground Scott Robertson I Thouses Bertling I HOW TO RENDER --- 5


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CHAPTER 02 Light Types and also Casting Shadows continued 41 Casting the Shadow of a Horizontal Stick over Complex Shapes 42 Casting the Shadow of an Angled (Leaning) Stick 42 Casting the Shadow of a Triangular Shape 43 Student Instances 44 Casting Shadows of Simple Volumes 44 Casting Shadows of Simple Volumes: Sunlight 45 Casting Shadows of Simple Volumes: Local Light 46 Casting Shadows of Overhangs 47 Casting Shadows of Openings 48 Casting Shadows of Complex Planar Volumes 49 Casting Shadows with Multiple Light Sources CHAPTER 03 Rendering the Geo Forms I PAGE s1 52 Creating an Ideal Lighting Set-Up 52 1-2-3 Read 53 Lighting Strategies for Box Forms 54 Assigning Values for Matte Surface Objects 54 Shadow Value Observation: Halfmethod to Babsence 55 Object Value and Cast Shadow Value 55 Ambient Light and Shadow Value 56 Value Assignments for Other Sides 56 Top Surface, Number 1 Side 56 Front Surconfront, Number 2 Side 57 Planning Values 58 Reflected Light 58 Reflected Light off the Ground 59 Reflected Light of Plane Reflectors 59 Reflected Light: Double-Bounce 60 Local Light Value Assignment 61 Local Light Rendering Examples 62 Sloped-Surchallenge Value Assignment 62 Planning and Approach to Value Assignments of Sloped Surencounters 63 Student Instances 64 Rendering Curved Surdeals with 64 Terminology for Shading Curved Surdeals with 64 Light Side, Shadow Side and Cast Shadow 65 Terminator and Core Shadow 65 Core Shadow 66 Form Highlights 66 Passive Highlight 66 Reflective Highlight 67 Reflected Light and also Occlusion Shadows 68 Cylinders 68 Shadow Construction of a Vertical Cylinder in Sunlight 69 Shading of a Vertical Cylinder in Sunlight 70 Shadow Construction of a Vertical Cylinder in Local Light 71 Rendering of a Vertical Cylinder in Local Light 71 Vertical Cylinder Rendering Instances 72 Shadow Construction of a Horizontal Cylinder: Sunlight 72 Terminator, Highlight and also Cast Shadow Edge of a Horizontal Cylinder 73 Rendering a Horizontal Cylinder in Sunlight: Top Light 74 Rendering a Horizontal Cylinder in Sunlight: Side and also Diagonal Light 6 --- Scott Robertchild I Tresidences Bertling I HOW TO RENDER


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CHAPTER 03 Rendering the Geo Forms I ongoing 7 4 Rendering a Horizontal Cylinder in Sunlight: Sidelight 75 Rendering a Horizontal Cylinder in Sunlight: Diagonal Light 7 6 Rendering a Horizontal Cylinder in Local Light 77 Cast Shadow Construction of a Tilted Cylinder 77 Creating Practical Set-Ups 78 Cones 78 Rendering Cones in Sunlight or Local Light 79 Combining Cylinders and also Cones 79 Casting the Shadow of a Horizontal Cone 80 Spheres 80 Constructing a Sphere 81 Rendering a Spright here in Sunlight: Top Light 82 Rendering a Spbelow in Sunlight: Sidelight 83 Rendering a Sphere in Local Light: Top Light 84 Rendering a Spright here in Local Light: Sidelight 86 Shadow Edges 87 Student Examples 88 Backgrounds 89 Why the Background Is So Powerful 90 Traditional Versus Digital Rendering Tools 90 Classic Tools of the Trade 91 Pencil Handling 91 Graphite and Wax Pencils 92 Wax Pencil Application 92 Graphite Pencil Application + Paper 93 Practice 94 Markers 96 Pastels 98 Wet Media and Other Classic Techniques 99 Mixed Media l 00 The Importance of Mastering the Fundamentals l 01 Digital Rendering Programs l 02 Matching Values to a Photograph l 03 Student Examples CHAPTER 04 Complex Volumes I PAGE 10s l 06 Shading Simple Curved Surdeals with l 07 Creating X-Y-Z Form Sections l 08 X-Y-Z Form : Sunlight from Directly Above l 08 X-Y-Z Form: Sunlight from the Side l 09 X-Y-Z Form: Diagonal Sunlight 110 X-Y-Z Form: Local Light 110 X-Y-Z Forms: Planning a Rendering l l l Student Examples l l 2 Rendering Workflow l l 3 Student Instances 114 Digitally Rendering an X-Y-Z Form l 16 Cut Lines 117 Graphics 118 Texture l 19 Detail and also Texture Gradients l 20 Print + Practice Scott Robertchild I Thomos Bertling I HOW TO RENDER --- 7




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CHAPTER 05 Rendering Specific Objects I PAGE 123 1 24 Vehicle Lighting Strategies 125 General to Specific Form Building 126 Vehicle Rendering Step-by-Step l 30 Simplification for Communication 1 32 Mech Step-by-Tip l 34 Character Step-by-Tip l 36 Value and Color Relationship 138 Organic Form Rendering by Neville Page 146 Environment Sketching in Graphite through John Park 150 Rendering Environments by Robh Ruppel 154 Environment Rendering Instances by Robh Ruppel CHAPTER 06 Photo Reference I PAGE 157158 What is Good Photo Reference? 158 How to Use Good Photograph Reference 159 Building a Reference Library CHAPTER 07 Reflective Surfaces I PAGE 161 162 Angle of Incidence 164 Plotting Reflections 165 The Basic Idea l 66 Plotting Reflections : Concave and also Convex Surfaces 168 Value, Color and Perceived Reflectivity l 70 Fresnel Effect l 79 Digital Layering Strategy l 80 Reflection Flipping l 81 Reflection Pools and also Puddles 1 82 Reflections of the Light l 83 Reflections of Reflective Surdeals with l 84 Reflections over Graphics l 85 Cast Shadows on Reflective Surfaces CHAPTER 08 Reflections: Indoor Scenes I PAGE 187l 88 Understanding the Scene l 89 Digital Layering Strategy l 91 Indoor Studio Rendering Step-by-Step 8 --- Scott Robertson I Tdwellings Bertl ing I HOW TO RENDER


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CHAPTER 09 Reflections: Outdoor Scenes I PAGE 195196 Understanding The Sky's Reflection 200 Layering Strategy 20 l Outdoor Scene Rendering Step-by-Step 204 How to Render Eyes by Neville Page CHAPTER l O Rendering Specific Materials PAGE 209210 Metallic Repaint 212 Metallic Repaint vs. Glossy Repaint 214 Digitally Rendering a Metallic Look 216 Translucence and also Subsurconfront Scattering 21 8 Glass and Plastic 220 Luminescence 222 Water 223 How Reflections Distort 224 Wind on Water 225 Rain 226 Semigloss 227 Textured Surfaces 228 Chrome 229 Bronze 230 Brumelted Metal 231 Raw and also Machined Metal 232 Aluminum 233 Gold 234 Wood 236 Rust 237 Leather 238 Cloth 239 Carbon Fiber 240 Weathering 242 Camera Effects: Motion, Bloom and Glints 244 Depth of Field CHAPTER 11 Rendering Examples I PAGE 247 248 Fun via Values and also Weathering 250 Photograph Booth as a Deauthorize Tool 252 Picture Paint-Overs 254 Rendering a Sci-Fi Suit through Robert Simons 260 2D Rendering over 3D Renderings Glossary I PAGE 262 Video Links I PAGE 270 Index I PAGE 266 Bios I PAGE 268 Scott Robertchild I Thomas Bertling I HOW TO RENDER --- 9