Resonance structures are a collection of two or much more Lewis frameworks that collectively describe the electronic bonding a solitary polyatomic varieties including fountain bonds and also fractional charges. Resonance structures are capable of explicate delocalized electrons that cannot be expressed by a solitary Lewis formula v an integer number of covalent bonds.




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Sometimes one Lewis framework is not Enough

Sometimes, even when officially charges room considered, the bonding in part molecules or ion cannot be explained by a solitary Lewis structure. Resonance is a method of explicate delocalized electrons within details molecules or polyatomic ions whereby the bonding cannot be express by a solitary Lewis formula. A molecule or ion with such delocalized electrons is represented by number of contributing structures (also dubbed resonance frameworks or canonical forms). Such is the instance for ozone (\(\ceO3\)), an allotrop of oxygen v a V-shaped structure and an O–O–O edge of 117.5°.


Ozone (\(O_3\))

1. We understand that ozone has a V-shaped structure, so one O atom is central:


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The Nitrate (\(NO_3^-\)) ion

1. Counting up the valence electrons: (1*5) + (3*6) + 1(ion) = 24 electrons

2. Attract the link connectivities:

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4. Place any kind of leftover electrons (24-24 = 0) ~ above the center atom:

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Note: us would suppose that the shortcut lengths in the \(\ceNO_3^-\) ion to be somewhat shorter than a solitary bond.


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