When did Judas leave?
In the interpretations and also textbooks on the Holy Scriptures, we will certainly not uncover a definitive answer. However before, the majority of interpreters of the Divine Scriptures, and also compilers of the chronological presentation of gospel occasions, are of the opinion that Judas left the Last Supper automatically before the establishment of the Sacrament of Holy Communion, and therefore, did not get Communion.
This suggest of view is collection forth in the “Commentary on the Holy Scriptures of the New Testament” by Archbishop Averky (Taushev) of Syracusage (ROCOR), which coincides through the primary consensus of the textpublications of Russian seminaries: “However before, it is imperative to assume that via Judas’s departure, the Lord initially establimelted the mystery of Eucharist, which is narrated upon by the initially 3 Evangelists, while John is silent.”1
The exit of Judas from the Last Stop comes before the Sacrament of the Eucharist, percreated by the Lord, in the gospel textbook “The Gospel Synopsis”, publimelted by Saint Tikhon’s Orthodox Theological University.2 We uncover the very same sequence in the presentation of gospel events according to pre-revolutionary textpublications on the New Testament.3
Positions in which Judas was well-known as a partaker of the Body and also Blood of Christ, together with the other apostles, are additionally discovered, yet show up to be more favor an exception to the general rule.4 And this is not surpclimbing. Almany all Gospel interpreters of the nineteenth to early twentieth centuries deny the participation of Judas in the first Christian Eucharist. We will find this place from the Rector of Moscow Theological Academy, a frifinish and also supporter of Saint Philaret (Drozdov), Archpriest Alexander Gorsky5, in the interpretation of the Gospel of John by Bishop Michael (Luzin)6, in the History of the Gospel by Saint Theophan the Reclusage,7 in the Scriptures via Interpretations,8 in the “Interpretation of the Gospel” by B.I. Gladkova,9 and in the Trinity Leafallows publiburned in pre-revolutionary Russia.10
Opinions of the Holy Fathers of the Church
In patristic interpretations of the gospel, we discover various answers to the question regarding whether or not Judas got communion.
Judas did not obtain communion:
Saint Hilary of Poitiers straight affirms that “Judas corpus Christi non sumpsit (did not obtain the Body of Christ).11
Saint Ephraim the Syrian:
“In the same means, the Lord, by means of water, separated Judas from His disciples as soon as He gave him breview soaked in water (sop),12 bereason he was not worthy of that bcheck out, which along with wine, was distributed to the twelve apostles. For it is not ideal that the one who betrayed Him to death
Judas obtained communion:
Saint John Chrysostom:
“Then, the Gospel says: as they were eating, Jesus took breview, and blessed it, and also brake it, and gave it to the disciples, and also sassist, Take, eat; this is my body. And he took the cup, and also offered thanks, and also offered it to them, saying, Drink ye all of it; For this is my blood of the brand-new testament, which is shed for many type of for the remission of sins. (Matt. 26:26-28) Judas was there when the Lord spoke these words. This is the blood, O Judas, which you marketed for thirty pieces of silver! This is blood, for which you quickly before shamelessly baracquired through the ungrateful Pharisees. O, the good mercy of Christ! O, the ingratitude of Judas! The Master nourished, and also the servant betrayed. That one sold, having actually taken thirty pieces of silver, and Christ provided his own blood as a ransom for us, and he would have actually offered it to the seller, if, of course, he wanted it, bereason Judas was tright here prior to the betrayal, he took part in the holy meal, and also tasted the Last Stop.”14
Saint Augustine of Hippo:
“It should be construed that our Lord had already dispersed the sacrament of His body and also blood to all His disciples, among whom was Judas also, as Luke narrates: And after that, we came to this, wright here, according to the relation of John, our Lord, by dipping and also handing the morsel, does a lot of openly declare His betrayer.”15
Blessed Theophylact of Ohrid expresses both points of view as having the right to exist:
“The evangelist added
The Witness of the Evangelists
If we rotate directly to the text of the Gospel, we will uncover the complying with. According to the Evangelists Matthew and also Mark, the Savior points to His traitor prior to the school of the Eucharist. According to the Gospel of Luke, this happens after the sacrament is performed. In the Gospel of John, the college of the Sacrament of the Body and Blood of Christ finds itself beyond the focus of the narrative.
The famous exegete Bishop Cassian (Bezobrazov) offers the adhering to thinking on this subject:
“Was Judas allowed or not to get the Eucharistic meal? This concern has actually been addressed in various ways. If based on the message of Matthew and also Mark, it seems possible to safeguard the thesis that Jesus spoke His words about the traitor, that then left, after which, the college of the Eucharist took area. This opportunity is not excluded by John, given that he does not speak of the institution of the Eucharist. The institution of the Eucharist in the Gospel of John can have taken location just prior to the Farewell Discourse, after the leave of Judas. (See John 13:30)
The situation is various through Luke, where the Lord speaks of the visibility of the traitor after the facility of the Eucharist (see: Luke 22:21). Jesus openly testifies that the hand of the one who betrayed Him is with Him at the table. From John, and also from Matthew, (watch Matt. 26: 21–25), it also adheres to that the traitor was called in his existence. Thus, the testimony of Luke says that the college of the Eucharist took place before the departure of Judas, in other words, that he communed.
This conclusion might correspond to the actual state of affairs, if we hold on to the idea that the Evangelist Luke redeveloped occasions in their chronological sequence, and also stayed faithful to his concern for chronological accuracy additionally during the narrative of the Last Stop. If the concordance of Luke at this point through Matthew and also Mark on the one hand, and also John, on the other hand also, transforms out to be not in agreement, then the witness of Luke may have a preemptive best to our attention.”17
That is to say, Bishop Cassian notes the obvious truth that out of the 4 evangelists, among them—the Apostle Luke—testifies to the participation of Judas in the Eucharist, yet none of the various other 3 evangelists contradict this fact.
The Apostle John does not explain the sacrament. The Apostles Matthew and Mark just indicate that the Lord speaks of the betrayal of among the disciples existing prior to the Eucharist. But, firstly, these evangelists did not say that Judas left after the revelation, and also secondly, who have the right to say that the prediction of the betrayal could not have actually occurred twice throughout the Last Supper—prior to and also after the Lord’s institution of the Eucharist?
We understand that the Lord has actually prophesied even more than as soon as about the betrayal of one of His closest disciples. So, we emphadimension once again: the only testimony in the Gospel concerning the communing of Judas is uncovered in the Gospel of Luke, and this testimony is not refuted or contradicted by any type of various other evangelist, to which Bishop Cassian draws our attention.
The Liturgical messages of Divine Week as an effective argument
However, the over arguments would not have decisive and also also vital significance, if we might not confirm them with more weighty disagreements, and also such debates can be found in our Divine Services, namely the solutions of the Holy Week, and also more especially, that of Holy Thursday and also Great and Divine Friday. Among the authors of the liturgical texts of these days are Saints Cosmas of Maiuma and Saint Andrew of Crete, who enable us not just to perceive these messages as patristic literature, however as the voice of the Church.
The Orthodox Divine Service is developed around the Eucharist—the Sacrament of the Body and also Blood of Christ. Hieromartyr Irenaeus of Lyons insisted on the inextricable connection of Christian doctrine and also the Eucharist: “Our doctrine is in accordance with the Eucharist, and the Eucharist, in turn, confirms the doctrine.”18
For this reason, we deserve to be sure that our liturgical messages, and also more so—the messages dedicated to the college of the Sacrament of the Eucharist, no doubt express the views of the totality Church, including the communing of Judas.
The solutions of Divine Thursday and Great and also Divine Friday repetitively and also unequivocally state that Judas was a communicant of the Body and also Blood of Christ along with the other apostles.
However, in contemporary textpublications on liturgics, one deserve to find the opinion that tbelow is a contradiction in the worship of these days.
Worrying the stichera
As the basis for such a conclusion, the complying with verse is proposed: “Let no one be ignorant of the Lord’s stop, O believers; Let no one method the banquet via deceit prefer Judas, for he obtained a morsel, yet abandoned the Bread of Life. He looked prefer a disciple, yet in fact he was a murderer.” (from the fourth verse of the Aposticha of the Bridegroom Matins of Divine Thursday)2021
<Translator’s Note: The verses in the Russian original are taken from Church Slavonic. Here, the original write-up goes on to explain the assorted methods the Slavonic may be interpreted and also understood in Russian. These interpretations, yet, shed their interpretation in translation, and therefore they are omitted right here. In significance, the writer emphasizes from the message that the “Bcheck out of Life” is Christ existing in the Eucharist.>
In any instance, it is impossible to conclude from the offered verses that “Judas still did not partake of the Body and Blood of the Lord.”
An unresolved contradiction with that conclusion is found in the exact same textbook, concerning the author’s words about among the stichera of the Great Vespers: “According to the text of this sticheron, Judas did take communion: it claims below that he had “heavenly bread”22 in his mouth.23
Thus, according to the writer of the manual on Liturgics, the liturgical texts of Divine Week about the communion of Judas allow us to think in 2 various means. If you desire, you deserve to think that he partook of Communion, or quite, you have the right to think he did not partake of communion. In component, we have currently shown that this is not true, and we will certainly attempt to display more.
In the Lenten Triodion, which consists of the liturgical texts of the Divine Week, there are four chants which directly soptimal of Judas's tasting of the Body and also Blood of Christ.
A Troparion of the 9th ode of the Triodion of Small Compline for Holy Thursday:
“Thou hath stretched forth thy hands, the same hands via which thou got the bread of incorruption, thou didst get the pieces of silver, thy mouth and also the lips thereof, through which thou gavest the kiss of betrayal, with that very same mouth thou didst get the Body and Blood of Christ; but woe unto thee, as Christ has actually said24.”25
Two troparia from the eight ode of the canon of Matins of Divine Thursday:
“Iscariot, that guy of ill-omened name, required from his mind the law of love, and also moved to betrayal the feet which Thou hadst wamelted, O Christ. He then ate Thy Bread, also Thy Divine Body, lifted up his heel versus Thee, and knew not exactly how to cry: “Prayer the Lord, all ye works of the Lord! Exalt Him throughout all ages!”
“Without conscientific research Judas accepted the Body that cleanses from sin and the Blood that was burned for the people. But he was not ashamed of drinking what he had actually offered for a price. He was not offfinished at evil, and also kbrand-new not exactly how to cry: “Worship the Lord, all ye functions of the Lord! Exalt Him throughout all ages!”26
Vespers of Great and also Holy Thursday.27 The Stichera at “Glory … currently and ever”, and also “Lord I have cried to Thee”:
Truly Judas is descended from those vipers, that ate manna in the wilderness, yet murmured against Him Who nouriburned them. For, while the food was still in their mouths, those ungrateful men reviled God. So, also, this godmuch less guy, while still bearing in his mouth the Heavenly Breview, contrived the betrayal of the Savior. What greedy purpose! What inhuguy insolence! He sells the One Who nouriburned him. He delivers to fatality the Master Whom he loved. Truly this lawless male is their son. With them he will certainly inherit perdition. Spare our souls of such inhumankind, O only Lord of boundmuch less mercy!28
The cited messages, in this author’s opinion, are so eloquent in and also of themselves that they require no comment. In illustrations of these messages of the Last Stop, Judas is among the apostles putting his hand also right into a bowl on the center of the Passover table, in which tright here is a fish—a symbol of Christ, that is to say, Communion.
The Lord’s immeasurable long-suffering
But in the Triodion, tright here are words revealing to us the reason for the Lord's excessive condescension to an unfaithful disciple:
“What led to thee, O Judas, to betray the Savior? Did he collection thee aside from the Disciples? Did he deny thee the gift of healing? Did he take supper through the others and send thee amethod from the table? Did he wash the feet of the rest and pass thee by? Of just how much goodness hast thou become forgetful? Yea, thine unpraiseworthy mind hath been exposed. But his incalculable longenduring and also his good mercies are prodeclared with praise.”29
According to the given message, the basis of such condensation that the Lord gave to His betrayer is “incalculable longsuffering” and “excellent mercy.” It is challenging for the faithful Christian consciousness to accept the concept that our Lord Jesus Christ, understanding around the upcoming betrayal, admitted the traitor to the Communion of His Body and Blood, to the excessive level of union with Himself in the sacrament of love, in the New Testimony “Holy of Holies”. But: My thoughts are not your thoughts, neither are your means my methods, saith the Lord. For as the heavens are higher than the earth, so are my means better than your means, and my thoughts than your thoughts (Isaiah 55:8-9).
If you think about it, the communing of Judas fits right into the design template of the kenosis of Christ—that unthinkable “self-emptying” of the Son of God, which began in the Incarnation and also ended in a shameful and painful fatality on the Cross. In the instance of Judas, we check out the same too much condescension and also humiliation of the Savior to the humale perboy. Even knowing that He will certainly be betrayed by Judas, the Lord does everything feasible to appeal to the traitor, consisting of permitting him, defiled by passions and unidea, to accept the sacrament of His Pure Body and Blood, so that the apostate does not have also the least excuse, which the above Kathisma states.
Thus, the sacrament of Judas shows us that the Lord does not forsake any kind of human, even at the excessive phase of ethical decline; however while such a perchild is alive, He looks for his salvation and also provides us all the feasible and vital means for our go back to God. And the participation of Judas in the sacrament of Holy Communion gives us hope and even confidence that in our a lot of extreme life instances, and also in a state of retreat from God, the Lord does not leave us.
But the exact same truth of the communion of the betrayer, at the exact same time, serves as a damaging warning to us. It transforms out that without good mindful and sincere repentance, also the best Church sacrament not just does not benefit a perchild, but additionally renders him a vessel and instrument of satan, as St. John Chrysostom reminds us:
“At that time, Judas was unworthy of participating in the Last Stop, and also going out he betrayed the Lord. (This occurred so) that you would understand also that those that are unworthy of participating in the sacraments,
If it seems to us that we are far from the risk of complying with Judas in the betrayal of Christ, then this only seems that method to us.
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And in order to really move ameans from this surprisingly recording abyss, it is crucial that the memory of the betrayal of one of the closest disciples of Christ, after the reception of the Divine Mysteries, becomes for us a type of vaccination or warning. One should be all set to repeat the words of the Apostles in response to the words of Christ: “Verily I say unto you, that among you shall betray me”, and via exceeding sorrow, say, “Lord, is it I?”