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ght to me the bags... And also prior to Joseph and revered . He climate knew the there to be no evil lrlt and also he can no longer., (suspect them) ... And he could no longer.. And he gift his brothers a big l ... On mine (Judah"s) shoulder (literally: neck) and embraced me ... The testament of Naphtali (4Q215) two reasonably intact fragments, dating to ttie turn of ttie era, represent the Hebrew message of the testament of Naphtali, v occasional similarities to the variation which survives in Greek. Fr 1 partly overlaps with TNaphtali 1, 9, 11-12, there is no being similar with it. Fr. 2 depicts the blessedness the the erxl that time and also may belong come a separate sectarian document. For the editio phnceps, check out IVI. E. Stone, DJD, XXII, 73-82. Fr. 1 ... With the sisters(?) that (or: with Ahiyot,) the dad of Bilhah, ... Deborah, who suckled Reb ... And he entered captivity and also Laban sent out out and rescued him and also gave him Hannah, among maidservants. a very first , Zilphah, and also gave she the surname Zilphah after the surname of the town whe he was taken into captivity She conceived and also bore Bilhah, mine mother, and also Hannah referred to as her name Bilhah, for as soon as she was born, a hurry come suck. And she said, "What? Is mine daughter in a hurry?" and she referred to as her again Bilhah. VacafWhen my dad Jacob involved Laban, fleeing from Esau, his brother, and after., the father of Bilhah my mother and Laban led Hannah, the mommy of mine mother and also her two daughters, h and one come Rachel. And also when it pertained to pass that Rachel did no bear sons, ... brother... Narrative and also Poetic Composition^ ^ (formerly "A Joseph Apocryphon") (4Q371-3) 4Q371-3 kind a really fragmentary Hebrew narrative relating come ttie duration of ttie Patriarchs and looses. Palaeograpliically tliey room dated to tlie second iialf the the an initial century BCE. 4Q372 appears to be the relic of an anti-Samaritan polemical work, antedating tlie devastation of the holy place on mountain Gerizim under man Hyrcanus i (134-104 BCE). No sectarian functions are obvious in this writing. It must be detailed that ttie joint reference to the people of Levi, Judah arKi Benjamin (line 14) is paralleled in 1QM 1,2. 4Q373, parallel come 2Q22, defines the fight between a Jewish hero, probably Moses, and also the large Og, ily ones whom Thou besides sanctified. A depicted on monarchs (4Q382) 1 54 papyrus fragments, palaeographically dated to the an initial half of the first century BCE, belong to a l2. 42. In the secret chambers of Horon, In the seaward-looking underground chamber In the narrow part (?) destruction sixteen cubits: 22 tal. 43. At Qob"ah a large amount that money offerings (?). 44. In ~ the "sound that waters" (waterfall) close come the leaf of the gutter on the east side the the exit dig 7 cubits: 9 tal. 45. In the secret cavity on the north next of the mouth of the canyon of gambling Tamar In the parched land of ... (?), all the Is In it is herem (= dedicated to the Temple). 46. At the "dovecot" which is at Mesad, at the conduit, Col. X southward in ~ the 2nd stair descending native the top: 9 tai. 47. In the cistern next to the canals fed by the great Wadi, at the bottom: 12 tai. 48. At the reservoir which is in gambling Kerem going to the ieft that ten notches: sixty-two taients that siiver. 49. At the pond the the vaiiey of "YK (?) top top its western side is a ma"ah coin coupied through two ma"ahs. This is the entrance: three hundred taients the goid and also twenty pitched vesseis. 50. Under the "Hand" (= Monument) that Absalom top top the western side dig twelve notches: 80 tai. 51 . At the pond the the privy of Siloa under the watering-trough: 1 7 tai. 52. o iQln^ Incomplete Isjijh in K. I.. Sukenik, Thf De.itl Sea StTvUt ef ijte HtbrrK Unhmity, Jenisalem, 1954 (HebivwX ■955 (Engli*) iQipGw Genesis Apocryphon in N. Avigad mi Y. Yadfn, A Cnrir^pipj^Jeraialam, i$5« iQpHib Co— MHylliliim ImMBm llliiimnf Ik SvInhI^ opt cib Wir Scnl ■ E. L. Srixdk sp. Dt. UJO.I iQ i-iQGoi 4-5.inl)c-ui" 6=,(.)JiKle 7>iQSani jalQEuk io-ii"iQPs*^ ij-iQphyl i4=iQpMic i5=iOpZcph ■ «., (Jill"s i7-i8.iQJub""" >l-iQTL«i>r u-iQDM 23-4"iQEjiGiaim iSmQSi "9 30- 31 31- iyjNar 33.lMfr^ 34-34 /.u.iQL.tPr^"" 63-B «9 Geneds Emdus Levirims in palaeo-HcllKW fcrj r)mi,T„t«.im I and i Sainiiel Phylactery Commenniy on Mklh Commcntaiyo Commcntaiyo Jobikes GiMiii ApocfTphoa AnoHie TcRunein of Levi Mm MkM (Saying) that Moae^ book of Giants (Enoch) A>kK-n phal prophecjr publication of mysteries Sate of Coa(n|Mto (Anas Bta«Bciioiii (Aho B CemmBiv Snh) Litufpcsl text Liturgical 10s Aramaic new Jerusalem battle Scroll Liturgical prayers Thanlogini^ Hymns (iQH) Vim 70-70 liir UnkfatificJpipyrasfcafinmw cave 2 DJD, 111 i>tQG«n GoMiis Exodus 5B>QpaleoLev Lcvidcus in paUeo-Hebrew manuscript Niimben lo-is«2QDeuc^ DeuteronoMjr ijuQJtr Mn J* IMi la-tQSir ■diSn 19-jo-iQJub** Jubilees 2i.!QapM.)iciQEaGinB publication of C^mn (Enoch) »7-JJ CAVES l-3QEzck Ezdciel l.jOPs Psalms 1 ..in)(."ii<.iiic)ns 4.}gplsa ( ;i)inuK-ntiir>" un Isjuh 5-3QJub Jul)ilees 6-3QH)nii 1 lyinn T}QTIi> Tcstinient that Jndih? 8 A «at ncatiooiaK ihe Angd the Pttoe 9 SecMriiaaai? xo-xs ttm tM — idrnrifinil THif n r frujmmilii 12-13 Stu.iII iiiii.!^ " . MchmBuaat 14 Unidentilicd tr^giitciiLs iS-jQTrMtm Ca|ipvScPoU cave 4 4Q »-».G«n"" rrami Finiliii Geaeas Parabiblical Genesis location lag the Genesis i z^pjkdCicn"" (icncsis Exodus 27-Niim^ DJD, XIV 4Q Oeuterononqr dkn an dto ditto lIiico ditto 47»Josh* Joshua 48.Jmh"" (liito S4-Kgs kings DJD,Xm DJD.XV 4Q 70-Ja" Ano minor DKwbM 4Q FMhn di(*o ditto J. Ikon HI* imBiiiM " y> loli fl rMW*"* io9>Qoh* iio-Ooh"" 1, 1-1 am dinn nS-Cbr En 4Q ns lopjIetKiin Fa" 45-4-paleoDeut^ loiapalefjob^ iiy-LXXLcv- isa^XXDciit ia3i^lc«Pjr.iJpaleoUnidi-i 4Q I56ai|gIi«T 4Q 159- Ord* 160- ViiSun itfl-SapblT* itt-fiMle i 7o=pZcph 171-pIV Deuteronomy project GfeekLcvhiais Greek numbers Creek Dcurcmnonqr Parjl.it>hc-Jl Joshua ftfc Unitlendlied frs. Lt>h>K..>panpbi!iMS Unlinanoes VbionofSamual ComnratMin 00 bild Commeniiries on Hosea commentary on Mic»h comment on Nihum comment on Zephiniah CxMtunentary top top Psalms Commefuaiy top top unkkntifieil Phylacterkt Mezuzot l«I «•» ««7-9S l96-5)>Tob ar*^ 300-Tob heb toj-EnGiano* io4-7»En^ 208-1 laEium"" ti2aEn*«L«ner 2i}aTLevi If* 2i4«TLeviti^ ii5«TNiph si5» X90-)i«CatSpit^ s33-Topanyiiu I35>unidcnt. 236>Psalm 89 Tobicinil Tobit in Hrfmw Enoch dino (Ciants) .1 Enixh jnd his Lcncr Anm. Test, the Levi ditto Hon «f Ki^lMNNMM Jubilees dino ns ;-j8 (iitm (H-jj dittu $$-6i ditto 63-85 dino 87-94 ditto 95-140 ditto 141-75 ditto 177-85 Pst-ink-piprnphic occupational in Catalogue the Spirits brand-new jerasakm in Hebrew Fn. With phce-names Scribil practice Nabattan text CanceUed (-4Q98g) Vacant numbers DJD, XIX ditto MiUk, Bookf of Enoch (2>7D,XXXVD ditto tlltIO (into ditto XXXVI DJD, XIII ditto ditto PJD.XXXVl D7D,xxvn a 38- words a4»iCaiiiiiiCaBtf S43-5-|MDan ar^ 3474ApocWccki >5emnaMSM >5ial9«>WocdlofS4^ Leyl r nnwumnry oa ig!D,XXXV DTD, XXVI DTD, XXXV ditto ojD, xvin C!70,XXXV DSD, XXVI Djn. \ i P70, xxix 070, XXXVI ditto £170, XXXV ditto DJI). XXXVl DJD.Xl DJD.XXJX Z77D, XXXVI DTCXX miac. Mica Damascn^^ Tohorot » • if,i lookofWar DidnkwoikC Wwdis(>Sattn«aiaf Dim Myuenes A^B Mjntenes C Ateooicoiy pmUe DJD, XXXVI 3Xl^lebr }l|>C>>pfr >i4-i« 3X9«MoQaGi^ 3lUodftBnat 3I9>0«K 3SO-30aCil 33I1>^>HW 33»-3"HiK^ 334>Or(la 33S-ex«rciM; Ciypdc cext A MMT Cincelled Frs. On the phases that ■he Moon (oyplic) One Calendar historic « C diltoB-C Ordo Genealogical list List the False Prophets list 01 Netiniin Scribal practice IMocandiKai DJD.XXXVl Mi liii.BoctarfBiioA, LeCKrir 343BLetteRitb 344-Debt 347-ftapDocar 348=Dcctlhcbr 349>Salchebr 350- Cerealgr 351- 4aCereal 355-4aMoiiqr Letter in Judaeo-A Letter in Nabataetn Acknowledgement of blame Slkofluid in .Aramaic Aramaic deed ~ above papviiis (Wncr-shifi lii ■mincnt in IKI»i.Av Hebrew sale of proper^ AooomHS ctwiiMBf perform (^persons SoUmI tsensse 36i=papD()odlcs Doodles on ptpynis 362-}-(;n,-ptB Undeciphcred Crypdc B 364-5-Kt-workPem"^ ReiA"Drked Pentateuch 365a=4QTcmpIc? holy place Scroll j66-7-ReworkPenr^ Reworked Peatueoch 370- overwhelming 371- 3"Njit, }74>MosApA }77"Pent?pB J7»*-Artodi-" 3Sa-p>fipudClaai 384=p.ii>.i<>JcrB jSsa.ApJiK:- 385b-6=psEzck - Pnyer of Enodi FItMKt attmnnilinn N".irr-ilivc coiii>KiMti phsLS A|X)cr phnii H PL-nlaicLith A|x>tr phi)ti i. Apocryphon the Joshua*"** lin-Kfaigs Apooypfial jLTfit>i:)h A dttoBr 1)11 p.ipvniv Pwudo-EMrljcl" Apociyphal Jeremiah C* Pseudo-Ezeldel AfncijiplHl Jeraniah C 39i-p3ppKEzel^ j91-3-l.it 394-9..IM I"*^ 400-407-Shir Shah*" 4o8>Wisd 4lowviaion 411-3 4l4.piinl 415>Instr* 41«-l8.lMtr"^-l 4I9»lnstr-likc 4JO^lBRi||lit*~** 413-Insti* 4i4=Instr-lile 425-VVis. MX dlitii nji). Xxvm D^D.xxn 070, xin DJD. XXX DJD. XIX DJD. XXX ditto dino ditto P70,XIX P7D,XXIX P7D.X DJD. XI DJD. XXXVI D7D. XX DJD. XXXV ol). XXXIV ditto DJD. XXXVI 0/0, XX D/D, XXXIV bstniction-Uke composition D^D^XXXVl B 07D,XX AfoonU MMT " Sungs of Sabbath Sacrifice*"*" Sapiential woric ^^sictn and also fawcfprctHiMi Sapirniial functions Ritii.il kc V"ork similar to ns Itnlayoi 070. XXXVI 44obFr Fr. Stating a coun dino 44i-i»Pr separation, personal, instance thanksgi%"ing A-B DJD.XXSX 443 -Pr Penoiul pnyer diao diM Lmm gOtdCMlft ■ dino Apeoyffcil PmIm aad £90. XI pnyer 449-56= pp. Praycr-i D7D.XXIX 457a=(;rc.ii CJrtation 457b>Hynin Escbatologicil hyma dino 459-tf3Narr 4ft4"Nnrr DJD, XXXVl 4Q 4tfy— Samtftn? ^Tnt Mcmioiuiw Suntoo OngngMica «f dM lord 4A7«Jacob text mendoning the irradiate of Jacob 468a-d-Fn UnidentiBcd frsgmenti C }MMU rMUMV JubOees 13-Melch Mdchizcdek Bcrakhah Hymns^ iT-SUrShab — iif Jim IP all nil x8-JN Nnrjcranlmi ifTampU" TanpkScnU yKliil.7I>rai«*&nff t-m loaTcmple^ Tcnple ScniO fis. DimaadD^XXIII a»TaiipU° TaivkSodF Ugl^Xjail si^i-Uaid UiUwifiedtaa QUMRAN texts OF UNKNOWN origin XQi-4 PbybcnriD Yadin, ItfmiptK XQ5> Ten A DJIl, XXXVI XQsfe T«l XO7 QUMRAN OSTRACA KkQ Oimaas igZUXXXVI KM) Omegaa dina KM OmcMi) dhn I. The siglum DJD designates the series Discoveries in the JudaeanDesert published by Clarendon Press, Oxford. The following volumes have showed up so far: I. D. Barthelemyand J. T. Mililut the series"s miscellaneous looks. Rieu retires in 1964, hailing the Penguin classics list together "the biggest educative pressure of the 20th century". 1970s A new generation of translators arrives to swell the Penguin classics ranks, and the perform grows come encompass an ext philosophy religion, science, background and politics. 1980s The Penguin American Library joins the standards stable, through titles such together The critical of the Mohicans safeguarded. Penguin classics now supplies the most substantial library of world literature available. 1990s The launch of Penguin Audiobooks brings the standards to a listening audience because that the an initial time, and in 1999 the beginning of the Penguin classics website take away them digital to a larger global readership than ever before before. The 21st Century Penguin classics are rejacketed for the very first time in practically twenty years. This civilization famous series now is composed of an ext than 1300 titles, do the widest variety of the best books ever written easily accessible to millions - and also constantly redefining tfie definition of what provides a "classic". The Odyssey proceeds ... Lie iat tf h enr wnttm NOuiH eiASiict .pct)L;iiirK"l.)sML"s.L"om 1 because that the story of my an individual involvement with the Dead Sea Scrolls, watch Providential Accidents: an Autobiography, SCM Press, London, and Rowman & Littlefield, Lanham, Md., 1988. 2 E. L. Sukerik, Megillot genuzot, 1, Jerusalem, 1948; W. F.Albright, Bulletin the the American schools for oriental Research 110 (April 1948), 1-3; G. E. Wright, "A Sensational Discovery, B;Mca/ excavator (May 1 948), 21-3. 3 Cf. The interview v the discoverer reported by john C. Trever, The Dead Sea Scrolls: A an individual Account, grand Rapids, 1979, 191-4. 4 Cf. Obsen/ations sur le Manuel de self-control decouvert pres de la MerMorte, Paris, 1951 His major synthesis in English is The Essene works from Qumran, Oxford, 1961. For the recent survey, check out G. Vermes and Martin Goodman, The Essenes follow to the timeless Sources, Sheffield, 1989. 5 Archaeology and also the Dead Sea Scrolls, Oxford, 1 973. 6 Les Manuschts du desert de Juda, Tournai and also Paris, 1953; exploration in the Judean Desert, brand-new York, 1956. 7 J. T. Milik, Dix ans de decouvertes dans le desert de Juda, Paris, 1957 (English translation: Ten years of discovery in the Wildemess of Judaea, London, 1959); F. M. Cross, The ancient Library that Qumran and also Modem Biblical Studies, brand-new York, 1958; R. De Vaux, op. Cit. (in keep in mind 5 above). 8 The Dead Sea Scrolls of St Mark"s Monastery, I, brand-new Haven, 1950; 11/2, new Haven, 1951. 9 The Dead Sea Scrolls the the Hebrew University, Jerusalem, 1 954-5. 10 N. Avigad and also Y Yadin, A Genesis Apocryphon , Jerusalem, 1956. See currently J. C. Greenfield and also E. Qimron, The Genesis Apocryphon Col. Xir, researches in Qumran Aramaic, edited by! Muraoka {Abr- Nalirain Suppl. I), Louvain, 1992, 70-77. 11 discoveries in the Judaean Desert, I: Qumran cave I, Oxford, 1 955. 12 M. Baillet, J. T. Milik and R. De Vaux, discoveries in tlie Judaean Desert of Jordan,\: Les petites grottes de Qumran, Oxford, 1962. 13 J. A. Sanders, discoveries in ttie Judaean Desert that Jordan,\l: Ttie Psalms scroll of Qumran cavern II (IIQPs^), Oxford, 1965. 14 J. M. Allegro and A. A. Anderson, discoveries in the JudaeanDesert ofJordan,V: ns (4Q1 58-186), Oxford, 1968. A re-edition of this volume through George J. Brooke is planned. 15 Khalil Iskandar Sahin, familiarly recognized as Kando, a cobbler cum antique dealer, had been the principal center man between the Bedouin discoverers of hundreds of fragments and also Roland de Vaux in the 1950s. 16 Megillat ha-Miqdash l-lll, Jerusalem, 1977 (English translation: T/?e holy place Scroll l-lll, Jerusalem, 1983). See additionally E. Qimron, The temple Scroll: A vital Edition with substantial Reconstructions, Beer-Sheva/Jerusalem, 1996. 17 Members the the original editorial team invested a an excellent deal the time working in Jerusalem in the 1950s, however were subsequently disbanded, many of lock occupying full-time teaching short articles in Britain, France and also the joined States. 18 J. P. M. Van der Ploeg, A. S. Van der Woude and also B. Jongeling, Le Targum deJobde la grotte XI de Qumran, Leiden, 1971; D. N. Freedman and K. A. Matthews, The Paleo-Hebrew Leviticus role (II QpaleoLev), Winona Lake, 1985. 19 In the 1970s, just J. T. Milik remained abundant - The books of Enoch: Aramaic fragments of Qumran cavern 4, Oxford, 1976; explorations in the Judaean Desert, VI: (40128-57), Oxford, 1977 - prior to he, too, gotten in a state of hibernation. By 1991, that was encouraged to relinquish every his unpublished documents, which to be re- assigned to new editors. 20 The Dead Sea Scrolls: Qumran in Perspective, London, 1977, 24 (originally the 1977 Margaret Harris Lectures ceded at the university of Dundee). 21 A Preliminary execution of the Unpublished Dead Sea Scrolls: The Hebrew and Aramaic messages from cave 4, Biblical Archaeology culture Washington, 1991. Two further volumes appeared in 1992 and 1995- 22 A Preliminary Concordance to tbe Hebrew and Aramaic pieces from Qumran Cavesll to X (distributed through H. Stegemann, Gottingen, 1988). 23 The following short account that the Huntington Library"s involvement through the Dead Sea Scrolls is based on documentary evidence kindly noted by the President, Robert A. Skotheim. In 1982, Elizabeth Hay Bechtel, a famous Californian philanthropist and also Scroll Maecenas, deposit at the Huntington a collection of negatives of Qumran manuscripts. These had been take away in 1980 by Robert Schlosser, the chef photographer the the library, because that whom mrs Bechtel obtained permission indigenous the Jerusalem department of Antiquities to photo all the Dead Sea Scrolls. Two series of pictures were produced, one for the old Biblical Manuscript facility founded by mrs Bechtel in Claremont, California, and another for herself. The latter finished up in a "climatized" vault specially constructed at the Huntington with the help of a Bechtel approve of $50,000. In 1986, a year prior to her death, granny Bechtel donated her Scroll photographs to the Huntington. Paragraph 9 of the covenant made in April 1982 mentions that products on which no restrictive policy is used by mrs Bechtel "will be made easily accessible to use by scholar in accordance with the Huntington"s basic policies for its very own materials". No such restriction was ever conveyed by she to the trustees of the library. Invoice Moffett came to be director the the Library in 1990. It was on the basis of i 9 the the commitment that the proposed come the trustees the opening of the Huntington"s Qumran photographs to all qualified users of the library. Invoice Moffett, the "liberator of the Scrolls", passed away on 20 February 1995 in ~ the age of sixty-two. 24 Robert H. Eisenman and James M. Robinson, A Facsimile version of tiie Dead Sea Scrolls, l-ll, Washington, 1991. The top quality of plenty of of these photos leaves lot to it is in desired, yet others room serviceable. 25 Patrick W. Skehan, Eugene Ulrich and also Judith E. Sanderson, discoveries in the Judaean Desert, IX: Qumran cavern 4, IV, Palaeo- Hebrewand Greek Biblical Manuscripts, Oxford, 1 992. 26 Cf Emanuel Tov, The Unpublished Qumran messages from Caves 4 and also II", JJS 43 (1992), 101-36. 2Z The claim that numerous minute Greek scraps from cave 7 represent the new Testament is unsubstantiated. Cf below, pp. 472-3. 28 the is argued that the Aramaic fragments of 4Q550 derive from a proto-Esther. 29 4Q242-6 testify to the visibility of a non-canonical Daniel cycle. 30 The exception is the Damascus Document, well attested in Caves 4, 5 and 6, however previously well-known from two incomplete middle ages manuscripts discovered in the Cairo Genizah, and an initial published by S. Schechter as records of Jevisfi Sectaries, I: pieces of a Zadokite Work, Cambridge, 1910; repr. Through a Prolegomenon by J. A. Fitzmyer (Ktav, 1970). For a much better edition view Magen Broshi, The Damascus record Reconsidered, Jerusalem, 1992. 31 "The development of the Jewish Scripts", in The Bible and also the ancient Near East: Essays in honor ofW. F. Albright, Garden City, NY 1 961 , 133-202. 32 . Cf. O. R. Sellers, "Radiocarbon dating of fabric from the "Ain Feshkha Cave", BASOR ^23 (1951), 22-4. 33 G. Bonani etal., "Radiocarbon dating of the Dead Sea Scrolls", Atiqot 20 (1991), 25-32. 34 A. J. T. Jull etal., "Radiocarbon dating of Scrolls and Linen pieces from the Judean Desert", Rad/oca/t)or) 37 (1995), 11-19. The quotation appears on p. 17. 35 . Cf. Many recently in The Essenes follow to the timeless Sources, Sheffield, 1089, 12-23. The co-author the this volume, martin Goodman, has actually recently doubted the usage of the proof by Josephus to prove the Essene identity of the sect, suggesting that Josephus never ever presents a full picture of the Jewish step of his time and that consequently he may have actually referred come a team merely comparable to the Essenes. Cf. "A note on the Qumran Sectarians, the Essenes and also Josephus", JJS 46 (1995), 161-6. In spite of my admiration for his learning, i exceptionally beg come differ. 36 for a fuller argument, view below, pp. 46-8. 3Z G. Vermes, The Dead Sea Scrolls: Qumran in Perspective, London, 1994, 117. 38 for a significant restatement that the totality subject, check out Emanuel Tov, Textual Criticism of the HebrewBible, Minneapolis-Assen/Maastricht, 1992.


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39 Cf "Biblical Proof-texts in Qumran Literature", JSS 34 (1989), 493- 508. It have to be noted, however, that the Damascus record quotes likewise the Bool