Chuck Berry on phase in London in 1965. Berry passed away March 18, 2017, in ~ the period of 90. David Redfern/Redferns/Getty images hide caption

chuck Berry on phase in London in 1965. Berry passed away March 18, 2017, in ~ the age of 90.

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David Redfern/Redferns/Getty photos

When lining Berry passed away last week, the music-loving world rose to recognize his standing as, in Bob Dylan"s words, the Shakespeare the rock and roll. The man was 90; civilization were ready. Jon Pareles, cook pop doubter of The new York Times, and also David Remnick, editor at The new Yorker, both instantly published lengthy obituaries. Musicians ranging from Bruce Springsteen to Questlove to Keith Richards the The rojo Stones – Berry"s well known protégé – rushed to salary tribute. Robert Christgau"s 1976 essay advertising Berry "the biggest of the rock and also rollers" recirculated on social media, as did Carl Sagan and also his Cosmos co-creator Ann Druyan"s 1986 letter informing Berry that a record of "Johnny B. Goode" had been transported into an are on the Voyager spacecraft. A an especially eloquent remembrance by Minneapolis City Pages editor Keith Harris declared Berry "inventor the the absent lyric, interpreter of teenage dreams."

Notably absent from this flood of panegyrics to be the voices that women. In fact, the stroll through cyberspace that"s now part of the mourning rituals for shed celebrities reveals the throughout his lengthy career, women seldom wrote about Berry at all. (Notable exceptions incorporate Lillian Roxon"s entry in her Rock Encyclopedia, which asserted Berry the "single most necessary name in the background of rock" seven years before Christgau did; and also a couple of contemporary writers, including Annie Zaleski and Shana L. Redmond, whose evaluation of the erotics the Berry"s "My Ding-a-Ling" is essential.) no one have plenty of women musician — Patti blacksmith stands out as one — asserted themselves Berry acolytes. The global language Berry did so much to establish, that cars and also girls and also teen freedom and also American dreaming, apparently doesn"t resonate that profoundly with countless women.

One factor this might be true is obvious. Berry"s life story includes several incidences of significant mistreatment of women. He was convicted in 1962, under the Mann Act, of moving a minor across state lines. The story that Berry and also Janice Escalanti (often misspelled Escalante) is murky, and the young mrs herself disappeared not long after Berry"s trial. His imprisonment, i m sorry derailed his recording career, is hosted up as an instance of a racist twin standard at a time when many rockers dated teenage queens. But there were various other grievances. That was additionally arrested because that assaulting a woman in new York in 1987, though just convicted the harassment. And in the occurrence most regularly cited together his lowest, he was accused in 1990 of videotaping women using the bathrooms of his St. Luigi restaurant. Berry"s biographer Bruce Pegg, who documented these "naughties" (to use the musician"s own self-deluding term) in the most detailed way possible, has actually said the Berry was together controlling and aggressive as he could be witty and warm.

Biographies prefer Berry"s have led come a spirited debate about whether art can be appreciated different from the sins of the artist. The most probing pieces by women released after Berry"s death focus ~ above this issue. Rock and roll aficionado Caryn increased wrote of her life time of wrestling v Berry"s tradition of linked brilliance and also sexism. Australian music scholar Catherine solid and Emma Rush used the occasion to argue because that acknowledgment of together wrongdoings alongside appreciation of your work. "As the founding figures of rock and roll die, the is time come foreground your wrongdoings and also their accomplishments," castle wrote. To some, such interventions it seems ~ inappropriate ideal after a death; for many women, they space an absolutely necessary part of rewriting rock"s past and future in ways that do real room for them.

That space can"t be made simply by calling out individual misdeeds. The very method in which lining Berry"s tradition is being celebrated, if wonderful and necessary and right in many ways, tho does a disservice not just to him as an artist, yet the women that did beat a crucial part in the rock and also roll culture he — and also many others, male and female, queer and straight, and of all races — invented.

Virtually every Berry evaluation published focuses on a patrilineal transmission from him come the white rockers that the brother Invasion, especially The Beatles and also The roll Stones. Remnick"s begins with a discussion of the "anxiety that influence" Keith Richards feels about the man whose every guitar lick that stole. Numerous others cited just how Richards and Mick Jagger met top top a train since one was delivering a Berry album and the various other noticed. The Guardian published ten songs motivated by Berry, all of them by masculine artists ranging from The Beatles to Motorhead.

These stories room crucial. Castle reclaim rock and also roll because that African-Americans, especially one African-American that well knew that racism retained him native the superstardom delighted in by those that learned in ~ his duck-walking knee. Yet they are additionally limiting, pushing to the side various other sources, consisting of female ones. Berry"s inimitable lyrics, together the historian Allen Lowe has noted, were partly influenced by the bawdy and also erudite blues of mrs titans favor Bessie Smith. He also loved the gender-integrated country music songbook. If much more women were writing around Berry, perhaps there"d be an ext rhapsodic writing around songs prefer "Memphis, Tennessee," a nation weeper the considers the toll soured romantic takes on family members in the same poignant means that Kitty Wells did beginning in 1952.

But it"s a third female number that most powerfully complicates the man-to-boys story that has Berry and his British invasion offspring inventing rock and roll: the teenage girl in the audience. She"s one that the songwriter endlessly attributed as a rock and also roll inventor, in songs abounding in nuance and genuine respect. As a man, Berry plainly had a difficulty keeping his hands turn off of together girls. Together an artist, he recognized their central importance and firm in ways couple of of his peers might match.

"Sweet little Sixteen," "Oh! Carol," "Nadine," "Tulane," "You Never have the right to Tell," — these songs and many other Berry standards portray girls as charismatic tastemakers who relocate through the people under their own power, leaving a new society in their wake. In "Sweet tiny Rock and also Roller" the girl is 9, a magical being whose cheers because that her favourite artists sets turn off an avalanche that "five thousand tongues screaming "more and more"!" uncomfortable is a common reaction in recent years to Berry"s celebrations of this "Little Queenies"; why to be a male in his thirties training his handsome eye on these innocents? yet there to be a cultural reason. The teenage people Berry made musical was a female-dominated one in many ways, and he interpreted that.

The postwar consumer culture of the teenager revolved approximately music, fashion, dating and other leisure pursuits, and also boys looked to girls for guidance. (Though virginity was still valued, girls often started date as young together 12 and also were taken into consideration "late bloomers" if they weren"t knowledgeable with boys by the end of high school.) Young mrs music fans ended up being bold in their pursuit of rock and also rollers, both as modest sexual conquests — getting a kiss from a touring musician to be a coup valued by countless — and also as beneficiaries of their support. Girl ran the pan clubs, bought the records and also the magazines, to fill the concert halls. Guys lagged behind, recommend by date manuals to let their girlfriends teach them exactly how to dance.

Chuck Berry"s understanding into this realities inspired him to create songs in which girls were nearly always in charge. "I"m walking to discover to dance if the takes me all night and day," he assures his to like Carol, begging her to not trade him in for a an ext skilled rival. In "Sweet small Sixteen," a song about how girls room responsible for the success of masculine stars, "e plopped teengirl fandom smack dab at the facility of the cosmos where it belonged and where it"s remained ever before since, despite years of effort by dumb boys and boring guys to dislodge it," Keith Harris writes. Berry adhered to this thread in his creating as teen culture became the counterculture, composing "Tulane" about an productive young female head shop owner (and her hapless boyfriend) in the 1970s. Joan Jett, one woman rocker who"s embraced Berry"s style, covered that tune in 1989.

Teenage girls appreciated Berry"s music no only because it recognized them but because its various other themes also reflected the challenges they faced. Encouraged by the culture to be sexual and then condemned if they in reality went all the way, placed in charge of a new world the fun and also shopping and also play but hindered if lock tried to seek careers or important steer their own lives, teenage girl in the 1950s experienced liberty in confinement. So did African-American entertainers prefer Berry, who made money but were additionally ripped turn off by the white guys who ran many of the music industry, who might travel across the country in an elaborate cars however couldn"t eat in many restaurants and also were continuous harassed through police and also who knew that their days at the top may be numbered – few of this innovators were able come sustain careers right into a second decade, unlike their white counterparts choose Elvis Presley or even Jerry Lee Lewis, that came ago from his own moral exile to enjoy country success in the late 1960s. Choose those girl who challenged a future that housewifery, chuck Berry was acutely conscious that the clock ~ above his fame was always ticking. The wrote about it in songs prefer "Reelin" and Rockin," expressing the boundaries of the giddy flexibility rock and also roll marketed to teenagers, something his woman fans can translate into their very own experience.

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Chuck Berry was not a feminist, an support for women artists or, on far-ranging occasions, even a human who treated his woman intimates decently. The doesn"t typical his music didn"t speak to women, or that the people he helped create wasn"t also partly produced by them. Together we psychic his legacy, instead of focusing so intently on the boys" club rock and roll became, we should remember the women that stood at its door, take it the tickets, wrote the informal account in their fan letters, told the DJs what come play. Those women whom lining Berry the artist taken into consideration gold. His tradition is all the richer if we identify their presence and also the intricacy it suggests.