gene: A discrete unit the hereditary details consisting of a particular nucleotidesequence in DNA (or RNA, in part viruses)locus: A certain place along the length of a chromosome whereby a offered gene is locatedgamete: A haploid reproductive cell, such together an egg or sperm. Gametes unite duringsexual reproduction to create a diploid zygote.male gamete: Spermfemale gamete: Eggsasexual reproduction: The generation of offspring native a single parent the occurswithout the blend of gametes (by budding, division of a single cell, or division of theentire organism into two or more parts). In many cases, the offspring room geneticallyidentical come the parent.sexual reproduction: A type of reproduction in which 2 parents give rise come offspringthat have distinctive combinations of gene inherited native both parental via the gametes

How numerous chromosomes room in person cells? What is a chromosome? There room 46chromosomes in person somatic cells. A chromosome is a cellular structure carryinggenetic material, found in the nucleus of eukaryotic bio cells. Every chromosome consists ofone very long DNA molecule and associated proteins.

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Which kind of reproduction will an outcome in genetically similar offspring? Asexualreproduction

What is a somatic cell? Give instances of two person somatic cell types. A somatic cellis any cell in a multicell organism other than a sperm or egg or your precursors.Examples incorporate bone cells, skin cells, blood cells, etc.

5.How walk a somatic cell compare to a gamete in regards to chromosome number? Unlikesomatic cells, gametes save a single collection of chromosomes. Such cells are dubbed haploidcells, and also each has a haploid number of chromosomes (n). For humans, the haploid

number is 23.6.

Description #in person cellsSexChromosome

A chromosome responsible because that determining the sex the anindividual

1

Autosome A chromosome the is no directly involved in determining sex; no a sex chromosome

22

7.What is a karyotype? just how is the prepared? When images of the chromosomes arearranged in pairs, beginning with the longest chromosomes, the result ordered display iscalled a karyotype. Karyotypes are ready from diverted somatic cells, i m sorry aretreated v a medicine to wake up mitosis and also then grown in society for numerous days. Cellsarrested in metaphase, once chromosomes room most highly condensed, are stained andthen perceived with a microscopic lense equipped with a digital camera. A photograph of thechromosomes is presented on a computer monitor, and also the photos of the chromosomesare arranged into pairs according to their appearance.

What room three points that deserve to be determined from a karyotype? (Study the ResearchMethod, number 13.3, in her text very closely for this information.) dimension of the chromosome,position of the centromere, and also pattern the the stained bands.

Explain what is intended by homologous chromosomes. A pair that chromosomes of thesame length, centromere position, and staining pattern

Liver cell- diploidEgg cell-haploidSkin cell-diploidSomatic cell-diploidGamete-haploidZygote-diploid

Study figure 13.6 in your text. Girlfriend will watch that plants have actually a life cycle that involvesspores, which kind as a result of meiosis, so these spores are haploid. Notification also thatboth haploid and also diploid cells can divide by mitosis. However, meiosis always beginswith cell that room diploid , and also as a result of meiosis, daughter cells are developed that arealways haploid. These cells deserve to be gametes (in animals) or spores (in plants).

Your research of plants this year will include knowing the they exhibition alternation ofgenerations. What go this mean? A life bicycle in which over there is both a multicellulardiploid form; characteristics of plants and also some algae.What are the two generations? Sporophyte and gametophyteWhich is haploid, and also which is diploid? Sporophyte is diploid, and also gametophyte ishaploid

What are alleles? give an example. Alleles are any type of of the alternate versions of agene the may produce distinguishable phenotypic effects. A feasible example is theallele because that freckles.

In meiosis, the DNA is replicated during interphase, adhered to by 2 divisions. Thefirst department is meiosis I. Study the events of prophase I together they room significant. Explaineach of these events:synapsis: The pairing and also physical connection of replicated homologous chromosomesduring prophase ns of meiosiscrossing over: The reciprocal exchange of genetic material in between nonsister chromatidsduring prophase i of meiosischiasmata: The X-shaped, microscopically visible region where crossing over hasoccurred previously in prophase I in between homologous non sisters chromatids. Chiasmatabecome visible after synapsis ends, with the two homologs remaining linked due tosister chromatid cohesion.

The figure at the right shows metaphase I. Exactly how is the plan of chromosomesdifferent indigenous metaphase of mitosis? during mitosis, individual chromosomes heat up at

the metaphase plate. During meiosis, bag of homologous chromosomes line up at themetaphase plate.

There space two divisions in meiosis. What will separate in the first division in meiosisI? In meiosis I, homologous chromosomes separate.

Now study the chromosomes in anaphase I and telophase i carefully. Just how manychromosomes space in every cell in ~ the finish of the an initial meiotic division? 3 room the resultingdaughter cell haploid, or diploid? Haploid

During meiosis I, homologous chromosomes separate. What separates duringmeiosis II? sister chromatids separate during meiosis II.

To check that you have the large picture, right here are some rapid review questions.a. What wake up to chromosome number in meiosis? lock are reduced by half.b. During which division is the chromosome number reduced? Meiosis Ic. What is the purpose of meiosis? To mitigate the number of sets of chromosomes fromtwo to one in gametes d. How many times does the cell division in meiosis? 2e. How many times perform the chromosomes duplicate? Nonef. How plenty of daughter cells space formed? 4g. What is the chromosome number? nh. What are homologs (homologous chromosomes)? A pair the chromosomes of the samelength, centromere position, and also staining pattern the possess genes for the samecharacters at corresponding locii. What wake up in synapsis? The pairing and also physical connection of duplicatedhomologous chromosomes throughout prophase ns of meiosisj. What is cross over? The reciprocal exchange of genetic material in between nonsisterchromatids throughout prophase ns of meiosis

Use figure 13.9 in your message to compare mitosis and meiosis. Include these labels: parentcell, mitosis, meiosis, synapsis, homologous chromosomes, replicated chromosomes,sister chromatids, daughter cells, meiosis I, meiosis II, and also crossing over. See web page 256 inyour text for the labeling figure.

involving the exchange of corresponding segments of DNA molecules, begins duringpairing and also synaptonemal complex formation, and is perfect while homologs space insynapsis. A chiasma exist at the point where a crossover has occurred.

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31 .independent assortment of chromosomes: in ~ metaphase I, the homologous pairs,each consisting of one maternal and one paternal chromosome, are positioned at themetaphase plate. Every pair might orient through either its maternal or paternal homolog closerto a offered pole—its orientation is together random together the upper and lower reversal of a coin. Thus, over there is a 50%chance that a certain daughter cell of meiosis ns will get the maternal chromosome of acertain homologous pair and also a 50% opportunity that it will get the head chromosome.Because every pair the homologous chromosomes is positioned separately of the otherpairs at metaphase I, the very first meiotic department results in each pair sorting that maternal andpaternal homologs into daughter cells separately of every other pair. This is calledindependent assortment. Every daughter cell represents one outcome of every possiblecombinations that maternal and also paternal chromosomes.crossing over: Crossing end begins really early in prophase I as homologouschromosomes pair loosely follow me their lengths. Each gene on one homolog is alignedprecisely v the equivalent gene on the other homolog. In a single crossover event,the DNA of 2 nonsister chromatids—one maternal and also one head chromatid that ahomologous pair—is damaged by particular proteins in ~ precisely corresponding points, andthe 2 segments beyond the crossover suggest are every joined to the other chromatid.Thus, a head chromatid is join to a item of maternal chromatid past thecrossover point, and vice versa. In this way, crossing over produces chromosomes withnew combine of maternal and paternal alleles.random fertilization: The arbitrarily nature the fertilization adds come the genetic variationarising native meiosis. In humans, each male and also female gamete represents one of about8.4 million feasible chromosome combinations due to independent assortment. Thefusion that a male gamete v a woman gamete during fertilization will produce a zygotewith any kind of of about 70 trillion diploid combinations

Here is a funny exercise to drive this suggest home. Pull the end your calculator, and try yourhand at this: as soon as you to be conceived, what to be the odds the of the many

possibilities, her parents would certainly come up v you? a. The variety of different gametesthat can be formed due to the fact that of live independence assortment is 2n, where n = the number ofhomologous bag Therefore, due to the fact that humans have 46 chromosomes or 23 homologouspairs, what is the number of possible gametes that can be formed as result of independentassortment the chromosomes? b. Now, this is the variety of unique gametes her momcould have actually made. Her father might have make the exact same number. To watch the impact ofrandom fertilization, multiply the number of gametes one parent might make through thenumber of unique gametes the other parent might make.